Many studies of system logs treat
them as sources of failure events. Log analysis of system
errors typically involves classifying log messages based
on the preset severity level of the reported error, and on
tokens and their positions in the text of the message 
. More sophisticated analysis has included the study
of the statistical properties of reported failure events to
localize and predict faults    and mining pat-
terns from multiple log events .
Humans are visual creatures’, it is common to observe. Our reliance upon
vision is apparent in the way we navigate and react to our surroundings. We
fumble in the dark and instinctively turn to look at the sources of sounds.
Visual information also occupies a privileged epistemic role, and our language
frequently reflects a tight coupling of seeing with knowing. We evaluate views,
have insights, and see what is at issue. Perhaps most telling is the greater fear
many admit at the prospect of losing sight over any other sense.
The precursors of object-oriented programming can be traced back to the late 1960's: Classes, inheritance
and virtual member functions were integral features of Simula67, a programming language that was
mainly used for writing event-driven simulations. When Smalltalk first appeared back in 1972, it offered
a pure object-oriented programming environment. In fact, Smalltalk defined object-oriented
programming. This style of programming was so innovative and revolutionary at the time that it took
more than a decade for it to become a standard in the software industry.
What the described event marks is a moment where an expectation is shattered: the composer, who
expected to become a big success in the French capital, had his art rejected by one of the most
important figures from the city’s artistic scene. An event such as this is criss-crossed by innumerable
social vectors. On one hand, a foreign artist, fresh from the ‘periphery,’ a recent arrival in the great
cultural centre of the period; on the other, a Parisian artist completely established and at home in his
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There is no denying that such feelings of aesthetic pleasure may exist, indeed that they do exist.
The problem is to see where they come from. Matters are, at least from the philosophical point of
view, still relatively simple where we have to deal with feelings of aesthetic pleasure directed
towards aesthetic objects in the first two categories of simple sensations and purely formal
The purpose of this paper is to present in a uni¯ed context the reduced form modelling
approach, in which a credit event is modelled as a totally inaccessible stopping time. Once
the general framework is introduced (frequently referred to as \pure intensity" set-up), we
focus on the special case where the full information at the disposal of the traders may be
split in two sub-¯ltrations, one of them carrying the full information of the occurrence of
the credit event (in general referred to as \hazard process" approach).
A semantics of linguistic categories like tense, aspect, and certain temporal adverbials, and a theory of their use in defining the temporal relations of events, both require a more complex structure on the domain underlying the meaning representations than is commonly assumed. The paper proposes an ontology based on such notions as causation and consequence, rather than on purely temporal primitives.