Presents a new methodology for helping members of a group to arrive at carefully reasoned value judgments or decisions. The new procedure, called "qualitative controlled feedback," presents each group member with a common question, and each member is asked independently for both an answer to the question, and for reasons which he feels justify his answer. An intermediary collects all stated reason......
The Fuzzy Set Theory developed by L. Zadeh (Zadeh 1965) as a possible way to
handle uncertainty is particularly useful for the representation of vague expert
knowledge and processing uncertain or imprecise information. The Fuzzy Set
Theory is based on an extension of the classical meaning of the term "set" and
formulates specific logical and arithmetical operations for processing information
defined in the form of fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules.
Second, a discussion of key determinants of the way the agricultural sector is organized highlights that,
while large operations have historically had a dominant role in plantation crops, agricultural production,
in contrast to marketing or processing, is not characterized by significant economies of scale.
VERIFICATION USING TIMED AUTOMATA
Finite automata and temporal logics have been used extensively to formally verify qualitative properties of concurrent systems. The properties include deadlock- or livelock-freedom, the eventual occurrence of an event, and the satisfaction of a predicate. The need to reason with absolute time is unnecessary in these applications, whose correctness depends only on the relative ordering of the associated events and actions.
This short text is the output of a desire to produce a helpful additional source for my students and from that, perhaps be of
use to other similar students and managers of this subject area. After several years of working with classes on Management
Decision Making, the need for a short and focused integrative text was clear to me. There are many excellent texts on both
the qualitative and quantitative aspects of decision making, but few which address both.
In some cases, there may be reasonable proxies for quantified benefits and costs. For
example, a firm might possess relatively complete technical descriptions of material flows
(inputs, intermediate products, emissions). These material quantities, while not explicitly
translated into financial quantities, may provide rules of thumb that qualitatively inform
decision-making and guard against severe errors in decision-making.
For tracking the marketing related behaviors
of online communities, “netnography” is a
stand-alone method. It is a way in which to
understand the discourse and interactions of
people engaging in computer-mediated
communication about market-oriented topics.
Chapter 1 - Introduction: Themes in the study of life. In this chapter, you should now be able to: Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences; distinguish among the three domains of life, and the eukaryotic kingdoms; distinguish between the following pairs of terms: discovery science and hypothesis-based science, quantitative and qualitative data, inductive and deductive reasoning, science and technology.
There will be cases where chemical interferences can be identified for a
particular method but the chances of encountering them in real life may be improbable. The
analyst has to decide at what point it is reasonable to stop looking for interferences. These
parameters apply to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The selectivity of a method is
usually investigated by studying its ability to measure the analyte of interest in test portions
to which specific interferences have been deliberately introduced (those thought likely to be
present in samples).
We present and compare two approaches to the task of summarizing evaluative arguments. The ﬁrst is a sentence extractionbased approach while the second is a language generation-based approach. We evaluate these approaches in a user study and ﬁnd that they quantitatively perform equally well. Qualitatively, however, we ﬁnd that they perform well for different but complementary reasons. We conclude that an effective method for summarizing evaluative arguments must effectively synthesize the two approaches. ...