“Be it deep or shallow, red or black, sand or clay, the soil is the link between the rock
core of the earth and the living things on its surface. It is the foothold for the plants we
grow. Therein lays the main reason for our interest in soils.” --- Roy W. Simonson,
USDA Yearbook of Agriculture, 1957.
The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) was probably the first scientist to
examine a soil profile and suggest factors responsible for the structure of the various
Two samples were also analysed for polychlorinated dioxins and
furans (PCDD/Fs), a class of chemical that can be formed during the
combustion of materials present in e-waste. Soil from an open
burning site was moderately contaminated, while sediment from the
Agbogbloshie lagoon contained a very high level of these highly toxic,
highly persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals, at a level just below
the threshold defined as being indicative of serious contamination for
sediments in the Netherlands.
In many settings nitrogen enrichment of surface water
bodies has increased following the increased use of N
fertilizers. The precise contribution of nitrogen fertilizers
to surface water nitrogen has been difﬁcult to quantify
because there are multiple sources of nitrogen contributing
to most water bodies, and, depending on environmental
conditions, a certain portion of soil nitrogen may be
converted to gaseous or immobile forms.
Due to the high toxicity of arsenic and the poison effects to human being, identification and quantification of individual arsenic forms are important to appropriately measure the arsenic toxicity, environmental impact and health risk related to arsenic exposure. Arsenic species were quantified by HPLC-UV-HG-AAS. The separation was performed on an anion exchange Hamilton PRP-X100 (250 mm× 4,1 mm i.d.× 10 µm) column by using mobile phase A: 12 mmol/l KH2PO4- K2HPO4; pH = 6.5 and B: 24 mmol/l KH2PO4-K2HPO4; pH = 6.