Quantifying uncertainty

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  • Many important decisions are based on the results of chemical quantitative analysis; the results are used, for example, to estimate yields, to check materials against specifications or statutory limits, or to estimate monetary value. Whenever decisions are based on analytical results, it is important to have some indication of the quality of the results, that is, the extent to which they can be relied on for the purpose in hand.

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  • .RISK Recent events from the economic downturn to climate change mean that there has never been a better time to be thinking about and trying to better understand the concept of risk. In this book, prominent and eminent speakers from fields as diverse as statistics to classics, neuroscience to criminology, politics to astronomy, as well as speakers embedded in the media and in government, have put their ideas down on paper in a series of essays that broaden our understanding of the meaning of risk.

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  • Quantitative methods - including performance testing, indoor air pollution monitoring and questionnaires - can track changes in "quantifiables" and are a means of objectively comparing one intervention against another. Qualitative methods, on the other hand, help reveal the perspectives of individuals or communities and provide important contextual data to explain the results of quantitative analyses. They include in-depth, open-ended interviews, direct observations of behaviours and participatory methods. Sample size, i.e.

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  • For new information to be valuable it must, of course, actually be new information. If new cost estimation or accounting procedures simply confirm existing beliefs, they have little likelihood of contributing to changes in decision-making, and thus little likelihood of adding value. Environmental accounting techniques will be most valuable when they correct beliefs that are biased or when they focus on issues subject to high degrees of uncertainty. A focus in much of the environmental accounting literature is on the failure to quantify environmental benefits and costs.

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  • As set out in Appendix 1, we assume that there will be 12,258 vehicles in service in April 2014. In our Medium scenario, the total fleet size increases to 14,062 vehicles by the end of March 2019, a net increase of 1,804 vehicles. The Thameslink, Crossrail and IEP procurements will add, as a central estimate, around 2,500 vehicles to the fleet. On a like-for-like basis this will therefore displace around 700 vehicles. We identified 3,222 vehicles (Appendix 2) reaching the end of their nominal terms of use during CP5. Therefore by the end of CP5, there...

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