Rumen fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs to short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), methane, ammonia and occasionally lactic acid. Some of the free energy is used to drive microbial growth, but heat is also evolved. The efficiency of rumen microbial growth can have a profound effect on animal performance....
The estimation of these quantites arises in many research areas such as in physics
and engineering problems. In network analysis such as in advanced telecommunication
systems studies X traditionally represents the length of service centers
in an open/closed queueing network processing jobs. In this context these two
quantities (1.1) represent repectively the probability of buer-over
ows and the
distribution of the queueing process in this over
Several numerical methods have been proposed in the literature to estimate
the entrance probability into a rare set.
Given the random nature of future events on ﬁnancial markets, the ﬁeld of stochastics (prob-
ability theory, statistics and the theory of stochastic processes) obviously plays an important
role in quantitative risk management. In addition, techniques from convex analysis and opti-
mization and numerical methods are frequently being used. In fact, part of the challenge in
quantitative risk management stems from the fact that techniques from several existing quanti-
tative disciplines are drawn together.
Health literacy is “the degree to which individuals can obtain, process, and understand the basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions.” It represents a constellation of skills necessary for people to function effectively in the health care environment and act appropriately on health care information. These skills include the ability to interpret documents, read and write prose (print literacy), use quantitative information (numeracy), and speak and listen effectively (oral literacy).
Many risks that we face on a daily basis may be unavoidable, so there is an expectation
by individuals that the level of risk is being managed and reduced to safe levels
through evidence-based risk assessments and public health interventions. There has
been a growing recognition that risks need to be viewed in their public health context
to ensure that the most important risks are prioritized and addressed. Under a
broader public health imperative, risk assessments are used as an important process to
quantify the probability of harmful effects to individuals, sub-populations (eg.