`DATA! DATA! DATA!'
Analysing data from the inquiry
'Data! data! data!' he cried impatiently. 'I can't make bricks out of clay'
Sherlock Holmes, The Adventure of the Copper Beeches
`Data' never comes to the social scientist clean, like cement for bricks. As we found in Chapters 3 and 4, the society a person lives in ± and a person's beliefs ± can directly affect what counts as a `clue' and what counts as `evidence'.
Finding Answers from the Inquiry
`Elementary, my dear Watson!'
Sherlock Holmes had two purposes in mind when he used the word `elementary'. The first purpose was to demonstrate the brilliance and simplicity of his solution to a problem. The second was to show Dr Watson that the conclusion had to follow from the evidence.
A project of this magnitude and scope is never the work of only one person. It
requires the support of many individuals. Such is the case here, and I mention some
of those individuals below. I am indebted to them and many others for sharing their
knowledge and giving me opportunities over the years to gain valuable experience
and achieve intellectual growth.
I’m deeply indebted to Marc Holzer, of Rutgers University-Newark, for the
inspiration to promote government performance and the countless learning and
growth opportunities he has provided me....
A further issue is whether fiscal policy problems have lead to higher long-term
inflation expectations. The bold line in Figure 3, depicting long-term inflationary
expectations, as extracted from long-term index linked bond prices, indicates that this
was not the case. After an initial increase until May, break-even inflation decreased to
its initial level in October, and remained stable thereafter.
Carbon monoxide is a clear, odourless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of
organic compounds. It reduces the blood’s capacity to carry oxygen. CO combines
selectively with haemoglobin (the oxygen transport protein in red blood cells) to form
carboxyhaemoglobin. CO impairs perception and judgment at low levels. Effects worsen
as CO levels rise, leading ultimately to convulsions and coma at high concentrations.
The CO provisions of the ambient air NEPM are based on evidence that a
carboxyhaemoglobin threshold of 2.
A univariate descriptive analysis of the quantitative survey data was undertaken to
summarise the results for each question. Data was recoded by combining categories as
required to facilitate a subsequent bivariate analysis aimed at identifying patterns
within the data. Distributions of the respondents’ demographic variables were cross-
tabulated with their attitudinal variables and future orientation variables. The
coefficients phi, Cramer’s V and Goodman and Kruskal’s gamma were used to measure
associations between variables as appropriate.
One-electron oxidation of six different c-type lysozymes
from hen egg white, turkey egg white, human milk, horse
milk, camel stomach and tortoise was studied by gamma-and pulse-radiolysis.In the first step, one tryptophan side
chain is oxidized to indolyl free radical, which is produced
quantitatively.As shown already, the indolyl radical subse-quently oxidizes a tyrosine side chain to the phenoxy radical
in an intramolecular reaction.However this reaction is not
total and its stoichiometry depends on the protein.
Although farmers do not receive any support from society for the contribution of the dehesa
to welfare of society and the environment, they still conserve, prune and reforest oaks to
maintain fruit production to feed and fatten Iberian pigs during the montanera or pannage.
The ability of the Iberian pig breed to feed on acorns is a key feature in maintaining the
Conclusion: Toward a Science of Implementation
Public-health strategies draw largely on quantitative methods—from epidemiology and biostatistics, but also from economics. Clinical practice, including internal medicine, draws on a rapidly expanding knowledge base but remains focused on individual patient care; clinical interventions are rarely population-based. In fact, neither public-health nor clinical approaches alone will prove adequate in addressing the problems of global health.
Empirical evidence suggests that movements in international relative prices (such
as the real exchange rate) are large and persistent. Nontraded goods, both in
the form of ¯nal consumption goods and as an input into the production of ¯-
nal tradable goods, are an important aspect behind international relative price
movements. In this paper we show that nontraded goods have important impli-
cations for exchange rate behavior, even though °uctuations in the relative price
of nontraded goods account for a relatively small fraction of real exchange rate
Regardless of which conceptual model we offer users to browse and ﬁnd the items they want,
we still keep the Web’s navigation paradigm, serving information in pages named by URLs. Us-
ers can bookmark the pages served by Piggy Bank just like they can any web page. They can use
the Back and Forward buttons of their web browsers to traverse their navigation histories, just
like they can while browsing the Web.
Note that we have only criticized the packaging of information into web pages and web sites
in the cases where the user does not have control over that packaging process....
Like prophylaxis, preemptive treatment, which targets patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evidence of CMV entails the unnecessary treatment of many individuals (on the basis of a laboratory test that is not highly predictive of disease) with drugs that have adverse effects. Currently, because of the neutropenia associated with ganciclovir in HSCT recipients, a preemptive approach—that is, treatment of those patients in whose blood CMV is detected by an antigen or nucleic acid amplification test—is used at most centers.
Many risks that we face on a daily basis may be unavoidable, so there is an expectation
by individuals that the level of risk is being managed and reduced to safe levels
through evidence-based risk assessments and public health interventions. There has
been a growing recognition that risks need to be viewed in their public health context
to ensure that the most important risks are prioritized and addressed. Under a
broader public health imperative, risk assessments are used as an important process to
quantify the probability of harmful effects to individuals, sub-populations (eg.
In this chapter, we document the procedures used by the RTI International−University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI−UNC EPC) to develop this comprehensive evidence report Health Literacy Interventions and Outcomes, an update to our 2004 systematic review Literacy and Health Outcomes. The key questions (KQ s) for this update review are the same as those in the original review, with the exception that literacy has been replaced by the broader term health literacy.
It may not seem strange to us today that there is a thing
called energy that is conserved in all physical interactions.
Energy is a concept we have all grown up with. A hundred
and fifty years ago it was not so evident that there should be
an intimate, quantitative relationship between such appar-
ently unrelated phenomena as motion and heat. The
discovery that heat and motion can be seen as different
forms of the same thing—namely energy—was the first and
biggest step toward understanding the concept of energy
and its conservation.