Xem 1-18 trên 18 kết quả Quantum complexity
  • Anything you can do in classical physics, we can do better quantum physics. I head that remark in Boulder, Colorado, a few years ago when Dan Kleppners, a distinguished MT quantum physicist, was giving a lec-ture to a group of scientists on the subject of the quantum chaos.

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  • The vacuum is fast emerging as the central structure of modern physics. This collection brings together philosophically-minded specialists who engage these issues in the context of classical gravity, quantum electrodynamics, and the grand unification program. The vacuum emerges as the synthesis of concepts of space, time, and matter; in the context of relativity and the quantum this new synthesis represents a structure of the most intricate and novel complexity.

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  • This book is intended as a general introduction to modern physics for science and engineering students. It is written at a level which presurnes a prior tull year’s course in classical physics, and a knowledge of elementary differential and integral calculus. The material discussed here includes probability, relativity, quantum mechanics, atomic physics, statistical mechanics, nuclear physics and elementary particles.

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  • We consider a specialization of an untwisted quantum affine algebra of type ADE at a nonzero complex number, which may or may not be a root of unity. The Grothendieck ring of its finite dimensional representations has two bases, simple modules and standard modules. We identify entries of the transition matrix with special values of “computable” polynomials, similar to Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. At the same time we “compute” q-characters for all simple modules. The result is based on “computations” of Betti numbers of graded/cyclic quiver varieties.

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  • Modelling and simulation are disciplines of major importance for science and engineering. There is no science without models, and simulation has nowadays become a very useful tool, sometimes unavoidable, for development of both science and engineering. The main attractive feature of cellular automata is that, in spite of their conceptual simplicity which allows an easiness of implementation for computer simulation, as a detailed and complete mathematical analysis in principle, they are able to exhibit a wide variety of amazingly complex behaviour....

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  • Random matrices are widely and successfully used in physics for almost 60-70 years, beginning with the works of Wigner and Dyson. Initially proposed to describe statistics of excited levels in complex nuclei, the Random Matrix Theory has grown far beyond nuclear physics, and also far beyond just level statistics. It is constantly developing into new areas of physics and mathematics, and now constitutes a part of the general culture and curriculum of a theoretical physicist.

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  • Compared to standard definition, 1080p high definition has enabled a quantum leap in home theater engagement. But high-end enthusiasts and custom installers understand that even 1080p HD has its limitations. At close viewing distances, individual pixels become discernable. Diagonal edges of on-screen objects that should appear smooth become jagged. Even the outlines around pixels can become strikingly evident.

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  • [ 15 N]-heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra provide a readily accessible fingerprint of [ 15 N]-labelled proteins, where the backbone amide group of each nonproline amino acid residue contributes a single cross-peak. Cell-free protein synthesis offers a fast and economical route to enhance the information content of [ 15 N]-HSQC spectra by amino acid type selective [ 15 N]-labelling.

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  • We developed the synthesis of the caged oxygen donor (l-peroxo)(l-hydroxo)bis[bis(bipyridyl)cobalt(III)] complex (HPBC) as nitrate salt,which has,compared with the perchlorate-form described previously [MacArthur,R., Sucheta,A.,Chong,F.F. & Einarsdottir,O¨ . (1995) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 92,8105–8109],greatly enhanced solubility. Now,the quantum efficiency of the photolytical release of dioxygenwas determined tobe 0.4 per photon at a laser wavelength of 308 nm,which was used to observe biological reactions....

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  • This book intends to fill the gap in the literature of mobile robots by containing, in a single reference, complete graphically presented infor- mation on the mechanics of a mobile robot. It is written in laymen’s lan- guage and filled with sketches so novices and those not trained in mechanical engineering can acquire some understanding of this interest- ing field. It also includes clever schemes and mechanisms that mid-level mechanical engineers should find new and useful.

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  • This text will strengthen a student's ability to apply the laws of physics to practical situations and problems that yield more easily to intuitive insight than to complex mathematics. These problems, chosen almost exclusively from classical (non-quantum) physics, are posed in accessible nontechnical language and require the student to select the right framework in which to analyze the situation. The book will be invaluable to undergraduates preparing for "general physics" papers. Some physics professors will even find the more difficult questions challenging.

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  • A semiconductor material has a resistivity lying between that of a conductor and that of an insulator. However, in contrast to the granular materials used for resistors, a semiconductor establishes its conduction properties through a complex quantum mechanical behavior within a periodic array of semiconductor atoms, i.e., within a crystalline structure.

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  • Physics explains everything from the beginning to the end of any complete description of the human body. Such a comprehensive discussion should begin with the basic structure of matter, as explained by quantum mechanics – the physics at small dimensions, and end with the mechanics of human motion, the energetics of metabolism, the fluid dynamics of blood flow through vessels, the mechanisms for speaking and hearing, and the optical imaging system we call the eye.

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  • Discussion of nanotechnology can quickly become complex as a full analysis involves advanced chemistry, biology, physics, computer science, and engineering. The properties of nano-scale materials are governed by laws of quantum physics, causing materials to display properties and characteristics that would be considered by the laws of classic Newtonian physics. It is these intermolecular forces which cause nanotechnology to be both a vexing research problem, and yet have enormous potential.

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  • The present book contains fifteen contributions on various topics related to Number Theory, Physics and Geometry. It presents, together with a forthcoming second volume, most of the courses and seminars delivered at the meeting entitled “Frontiers in Number Theory, Physics and Geometry”, which took place at the Centre de Physique des Houches in the french Alps March 9-21, 2003.

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  • The scientific world has changed. For nearly two centuries after Newton, his ideas held sway, and found widespread adoption in many other disciplines. Subsequent advances in the sciences – from Einstein’s relativity thinking to quantum physics – have since replaced the Newtonian world-view in many disciplines. In particular, a more recent revolution in the scientific community looks set to finally change traditional manage- ment – the new science of complexity.

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  • It is by now well established that quantum machines can solve certain computational problems much faster than the best algorithms known in the standard Turing machine model. The complexity question of which problems can be feasibly computed by quantum machines has also been extensively investigated in recent years, both in the context of one machine models (quantum polynomial classes) and various flavors of multi-machine models (single and multiple prover quantum interactive proofs).

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  • In the present article, we address the question that how important role do the Quantum Mechanic (QM) and Molecular Mechanics (MM) forces play in ligand docking on protein, via the use semi-quantum relaxation approach (SQRA) using different forces, e.g. quantum, Van der Waals and Coulomb ones, in the process of ligand - protein docking. The QM approximation is applied to calculate the QM forces of neighbor protein-atoms acting on ligands. The L-J 6-12 empirical potential model and Coulomb rule are applied to calculate the forces from the rest protein-atoms on each ligand - atom.

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