Quantum effects

Quantum Field Theory is now well recognized as a powerful tool not only in Particle Physics but also in Nuclear Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Solid State Physics and even in Mathematics. In this book some current applications of Quantum Field Theory to those areas of modern physics and mathematics are collected, in order to offer a deeper understanding of known facts and unsolved problems.
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Nanoscale physics, nowadays one of the most topical research subjects, has two major areas of focus. One is the important field of potential applications bearing the promise of a great variety of materials having specific properties that are desirable in daily life. Even more fascinating to the researcher in physics are the fundamental aspects where quantum mechanics is seen at work; most macroscopic phenomena of nanoscale physics can only be understood and described using quantum mechanics. The emphasis of the present volume is on this latter aspect....
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This book is a collection of some of the invited talks presented at the international meeting held at the Max Planck Institut fiir Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany during August 630, 2001, on the rapidly developing field of nanoscale science and bioelectronics (http://www.mpipksdresden.mpg.de/~nanobio/). Semiconductor physics has experienced unprecedented developments over the second half of the twentieth century. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power and the size of dynamic memories has been achieved by significant downscahng of the minimum feature size.
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Putting the quantum into magnetism might, at first sight, seem like stating the obvious; the exchange interactions leading to collective magnetic behavior are, after all, a pure quantum effect. Yet, for many phenomena in magnetism this underlying quantum nature may be safely ignored at least on the qualitative level. The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects play a dominant role and have to be accounted for in detail has, over the last decades, evolved to be a field of very active research....
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This volume includes papers presented at the XXII Solvay Conference on Physics, which took place from the 24 to 29 November 2001 in the European Culture Centre of Delphi. The Castle of Lamia hosted the events of the last day. The Physics of Communication was the selected theme of the conference. The 5 sessions reflected present challenging issues, namely Decoherence and Irreversibility, Nonlocality and Superluminosity, Photonics, Quantum Information and Communication, Quantum Computation.
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Collection of research reports best university in 2007 honored the author: 12. Truong Van Nam, Nguyen Xuan Dung, study the effect of substituents on the properties of aniline by approximate methods AM1 quantum ... Quantum mechanics is one of the fundamental theory of physics. Quantum mechanics is an extension and supplement of Newtonian mechanics (also known as classical mechanics). It is the basis of many other disciplines of physics and chemistry as solid state physics, chemistry quantum particle physics.
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Within the framework of the Walecka model (QHDI)[1] the renormalized effective Dirac equation and the kinetic equation for fermion are presented. In fact, the fermion propagator in the medium is dramatically different from that in the vacuum. The main feature is the treating of the fermion distribution in non equilibrium, which depends on the interaction rate involving temperature.
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The Hall Effect in bulk semiconductors under the influence of the Electromagnetic wave (EMW) has been studied in much details. The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a MF perpendicular to the current. It was discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879.
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We have studied magnetothermoelectric effects in quantum well in the presence of electromagnetic wave. The analytic expression for Ettingshausen coefficient (EC) in the Quantum Well with parabolic potential (QWPP) in the presence of Electromagnetic wave (EMW) is calculated by using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons. The dependence of EC on the frequency, the amplitude of EMW, the Quantum Well parameters and the temperature are obtained.
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The photon  drag effect with optical phononelectron scattering in rectangular quantum wire with an infinite potential is studied. Based on the quantum kinetic equation for electrons under the action of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a dc electric field and an intense laser field, analytic expressions for the density of the direct current for the case of electron – optical phonon scattering are calculated.
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The Transverse Hall effect (THE) has been theoretical studied in a quantum well (QW) with high infinite potential subjected to a crossed dc electric field and a magnetic field (MF) which is oriented perpendicularly to the confinement direction in the present of an intense electromagnetic wave (EMW).
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The theoretical results for the EC are numerically evaluated, plotted and discussed for a specific RQWIP GaAs/GaAsAL. We also compared received EC with those for normal bulk semiconductors and quamtum wells to show the difference. The Ettingshausen effect in a RQWIP in the presence of an EMW is newly developed.
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The photon  drag effect with electrons – acoustic phonon scattering in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential is studied. With the appearance of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the laser radiation field and the dc electric field, analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are calculated by the quantum kinetic equation.
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Plasticizers are used to increase the processability, flexibility, and durability of the material, and of course to reduce the cost in many cases. This edition covers introduction and applications of various types of plasticizers including those based on nontoxic and highly effective pyrrolidones, and a new source of Collagen based bioplasticizers that can be obtained from discarded materials from a natural source; Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas).
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Nanomaterials, which are materials with structural units on a nanometer scale in at least one direction, is the fastest growing area in materials science and engineering. Material properties become different on the nanoscale: for example, the theoretical strength of materials can be reached or quantum effects may appear. Onedimensional and quasionedimensional materials such as nanotubes and nanowires demonstrate many extreme properties that can be tuned by controlling their structure and diameter.
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A new type of semiconductor laser is studied, in which injected carriers in the active region are quantum mechanically confined in localized finite selfassembled wirelike quantumdash (Qdash) structures that are varied in sizes and compositions. Effects of such carrier distribution and quasi threedimensional density of states contribute to a quasisupercontinuum interband lasing characteristics, which is a new laser design platform as compared to continuous broad emission spectrum generated by nonlinear media pumped with ultrashort laser pulse....
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Because of their apparent “simplicity” simple atoms present a great challenge and temptation to experts in various branches of physics from fundamental problems of particle physics to astrophysics, applied physics and metrology. This book is based on the presentations at the International Conference on Precision Physics of Simple Atomic Systems (PSAS 2002) whose primary target was to provide an effective exchange between physicists from different fields.
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Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Effect of Euimplantation and annealing on the GaN quantum dots excitonic recombination
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Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Effects of crossed states on photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of InAs quantum dots
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In the last few years, Nanoparticles and their applications dramatically diverted science in the direction of brand new philosophy. The properties of many conventional materials changed when formed from nanoparticles. because nanoparticles have a greater surface area per weight than larger particles which causes them to be more reactive and effective than other molecules.
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