• Imagine an atom with excess energy. Without external action,
the atom would, after a period of time, spontaneously emit light,
whose properties (e.g. its direction) are random — only the
energy is fixed.
• This situation changes when the
atom is shone with a light wave of
the corresponding energy. There
is then a higher probability that
the atom will also simply copy the
remaining properties of the incident
wave: It then emits light that is
in step with the original and
propagates in the same direction....
Research activities in laser physics and in photonics technologies over the last two
decades have continuously produced a large diversity of new advances. Several
examples illustrate the major impact of optics in the quantum sciences, engineering,
metrology, communication fiber networks, or high-capacity data storage. Besides
these established fields of research and development for industry or for the consumer
markets, laser optics will certainly disseminate in the near future in new areas such
as biology, chemistry, medicine, or nanotechnologies.
A new type of semiconductor laser is studied, in which injected carriers in the active region
are quantum mechanically confined in localized finite self-assembled wire-like quantumdash
(Qdash) structures that are varied in sizes and compositions. Effects of such carrier
distribution and quasi three-dimensional density of states contribute to a quasisupercontinuum
interband lasing characteristics, which is a new laser design platform as
compared to continuous broad emission spectrum generated by nonlinear media pumped
with ultrashort laser pulse....
We prove that the sequence of projective quantum SU(n) representations of the mapping class group of a closed oriented surface, obtained from the projective ﬂat SU(n)-Verlinde bundles over Teichm¨ller space, is asymptotically u faithful. That is, the intersection over all levels of the kernels of these representations is trivial, whenever the genus is at least 3. For the genus 2 case, this intersection is exactly the order 2 subgroup, generated by the hyper-elliptic involution, in the case of even degree and n = 2. Otherwise the intersection is also trivial in the genus 2 case. ...
The response of Hollywood was to embrace some of this material. A
landmark move was the decision by Columbia to distribute Easy Rider
(1969), a project originally destined to become another biker picture
for AIP. The success of Easy Rider helped convince the studios to invest
in a new generation of ﬁlmmakers seen to be more in touch with
the youth audience affected by the 1960s counterculture. Hollywood
learned other lessons from the independents in this period.
One of several current trends in distributed database system de-
sign is a move away from supporting traditional ACID database
transactions. Some systems, such as Amazon’s Dynamo ,Mon-
goDB , CouchDB , and Cassandra  provide no transac-
tional support whatsoever. Others provide only limited transaction-
ality, such as single-row transactional updates (e.g. Bigtable )
or transactions whose accesses are limited to small subsets of a
database (e.g. Azure , Megastore , and the Oracle NoSQL
Michael Alley Mechanical Engineering Department Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA firstname.lastname@example.org
Cover photographs: (Top): Richard Feynman, Nobel prize winner in physics, lecturing on quantum mechanics (courtesy of the Archives, California Institute of Technology, photo 1.10-118). In this photo, Feynman demonstrates the value of communicating with gestures. Gestures and other aspects of delivery are discussed in Chapter 5. (Bottom left): Lightning demonstration at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany (courtesy of the Deutsches Museum).
Automation is the use of control systems (such as numerical control, programmable
logic control, and other industrial control systems), in concert with other applications of
information technology (such as computer-aided technologies [CAD, CAM, CAx]), to control
industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope
of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.
The characteristics lines in X-ray
spectra result from electronic
transitions between inner atomic
orbitals. The X-ray spectra for most heavy
elements are much simpler than the
UV/Vis spectra observed in ICP-OES,
for example. (Only a few lines!!!) Big difference between X-ray and UVVis:
The radiation is ionizing, and
doesn’t just excite electrons to higher
levels. Moseley’s law: Predicts the basic
relationship of atom number and the
frequency of the characteristic lines
The quantum of wastes generated in urban centres has become one of the difficult
tasks for those responsible for their management. The problem is becoming acute
specially in economically developing countries, where there is a financial crunch, and
other resources are scarce.
Although, there are varieties of publications dealing with various topics of solid waste
management, most of these documents have been published addressing the needs of
Among the branches of classical physics, electromagnetism is the domain which experiences the most spectacular development, both in its fundamental and practical aspects. The quantum corrections which generate non-linear terms of the standard Maxwell equations, their specific form in curved spaces, whose predictions can be confronted with the cosmic polarization rotation, or the topological model of electromagnetism, constructed with electromagnetic knots, are significant examples of recent theoretical developments. ...
It is by now well established that quantum machines can
solve certain computational problems much faster than the best algorithms
known in the standard Turing machine model. The complexity
question of which problems can be feasibly computed by quantum machines
has also been extensively investigated in recent years, both in the
context of one machine models (quantum polynomial classes) and various
flavors of multi-machine models (single and multiple prover quantum