Quantum measurement

QDs play an important role mainly in the imaging and as highly fluorescent probes for biological sensing that have better sensitivity, longer stability, good biocompatibility, and minimum invasiveness. The fluorescent properties of QDs arise from the fact, that their excitation states/band gaps are spatially confined, which results in physical and optical properties intermediate between compounds and single molecules. Depending on chemical composition and the size of the core which determines the quantum confinement, the emission peak can vary from UV to NIR wavelengths (400–1350 nm).
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Classical physics breaks down to the level of atoms and molecules. This was made possible by the invention of a new apparatus that enabled the introduction of measurements in microscopic area of physics. There were two revolutions in the way we viewed the physical world in the twentieth century: relativity and quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics was born in 1924, through the work of Einstein, Rutherford and Bohr, Schrödinger and Heisenberg, Born, Dirac, and many others. The principles of quantum mechanics that were discovered then are the same as we know them today....
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Perhaps quantum mechanics is viewed as the most remarkable development in 20th century physics. Each successful theory is exclusively concerned about "results of measurement". Quantum mechanics point of view is completely different from classical physics in measurement, because in microscopic world of quantum mechanics, a direct measurement as classical form is impossible. Therefore, over the years of developments of quantum mechanics, always challenging part of quantum mechanics lies in measurements.
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We classify measures on the locally homogeneous space Γ\ SL(2, R) × L which are invariant and have positive entropy under the diagonal subgroup of SL(2, R) and recurrent under L. This classiﬁcation can be used to show arithmetic quantum unique ergodicity for compact arithmetic surfaces, and a similar but slightly weaker result for the ﬁnite volume case. Other applications are also presented. In the appendix, joint with D. Rudolph, we present a maximal ergodic theorem, related to a theorem of Hurewicz, which is used in theproof of the main result. ...
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Light is just one portion of the various electromagnetic waves flying through space. The electromagnetic spectrum covers an extremely broad range, from radio waves with wavelengths of a meter or more, down to xrays with wavelengths of less than a billionth of a meter. Optical radiation lies between radio waves and xrays on the spectrum, exhibiting a unique mix of ray, wave, and quantum properties.
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Research and development in modern optical and photonic technologies have witnessed quite fast growing advancements in various fundamental and application areas due to availability of novel fabrication and measurement techniques, advanced numerical simulation tools and methods, as well as due to the increasing practical demands. The recent advancements have also been accompanied by the appearance of various interdisciplinary topics.
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These days, it is impossible to think of an area of knowledge that can keep on developing without a collaboration in interdisciplinary fields. Electromotive force is a type of energy per unit of electric charge that is converted reversibly from chemical, mechanical, or other forms of energy into electrical energy by a dynamo, battery, electrochemical cells, thermoelectric devices, solar cells, transformers, and so on. The theory of electromotive Force is currently one of the most important research topics within the electrical engineering domain.
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The quantum theory is the first theoretical approach that helps one to successfully understand the atomic and subatomic worlds which are too far from the cognition based on the common intuition or the experience of the dailylife. This is a very coherent theory in which a good system of hypotheses and appropriate mathematical methods allow one to describe exactly the dynamics of the quantum systems whose measurements are systematically affected by objective uncertainties.
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In this book, Applications of Monte Carlo Method in Science and Engineering, we further expose the broad range of applications of Monte Carlo simulation in the fields of Quantum Physics, Statistical Physics, Reliability, Medical Physics, Polycrystalline Materials, Ising Model, Chemistry, Agriculture, Food Processing, Xray Imaging, Electron Dynamics in Doped Semiconductors, Metallurgy, Remote Sensing and much more diverse topics. The book chapters included in this volume clearly reflect the current scientific importance of Monte Carlo techniques in various fields of research....
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This thesis presents timeresolved measurements of the spin evolution of transient carrier populations in IIIV quantum wells. Nonequilibrium distributions of spin polarisation were photoexcited and probed with picosecond laser pulses in three samples; a high mobility modulation ndoped sample containing a single GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well, an In0.11Ga0.89As/GaAs sample containing three quantum wells and, a multiperiod GaAs/AlGaAs narrow quantum well sample.
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Traditionally astrophysics has concerned itself with minimum timescales measured in hours rather than seconds. This was understandable as the available recording media were slow; e.g. chart recorders and photographic plates. In the 1950s, 60s and 70s wavebands away from the optical were developed; from ground based radio studies to space and balloon borne high energy work. In contrast to optical wavelengths instrumentation in these (high and low energy) regimes was capable of time resolutions of less than a second....
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Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa hoc quốc tế đề tài : Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for lowtemperature quantum transport measurements
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La Magna and Deretzis Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:234 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/234 NANO EXPRESS Open Access Theoretical study of the role of metallic contacts in probing transport features of pure and defected graphene nanoribbons Antonino La Magna*, Ioannis Deretzis Abstract Understanding the roles of disorder and metal/graphene interface on the electronic and transport properties of graphenebased systems is crucial for a consistent analysis of the data deriving from experimental measurements.
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Güttinger et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:253 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/253 NANO EXPRESS Open Access Transport through a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in perpendicular magnetic field Johannes Güttinger1*, Christoph Stampfer1,2, Tobias Frey1, Thomas Ihn1 and Klaus Ensslin1 Abstract We present transport measurements on a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in a perpendicular magnetic field.
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In addition, since the collapse will not occur even with a seismic force of 1,000 gal in the case of a design solution for a seismic forces 800 gal or more, the total repair cost is about half that for other design solutions with the collapse, except at 750 gal. Sung. 13 to 15 show the relationship between total costs and seismic forces in the case repair costs for each design solution, calculated using the dangerous curve in the figure.
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During the years surrounding the new millennium, the field of vibrational optical activity (VOA), comprised principally of vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA), underwent a transition from a specialized area of research that had been practiced by a handful of pioneers into an important newfield of spectroscopy practiced by an increasing number of scientists worldwide. This transition was made possible by the development of commercial instrumentation and software for the routine measurement and quantum chemical calculation ofVOA.
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Xu et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:355 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/355 NANO EXPRESS Open Access Quantumsqueezing effects of strained multilayer graphene NEMS Yang Xu1*, Sheping Yan1, Zhonghe Jin1* and Yuelin Wang2 Abstract Quantum squeezing can improve the ultimate measurement precision by squeezing one desired fluctuation of the two physical quantities in Heisenberg relation. We propose a scheme to obtain squeezed states through graphene nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) taking advantage of their thin thickness in principle.
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The PML Grant Program provides financial assistance consistent with the PML mission to support research in the broad areas of mechanical metrology, semiconductors, ionizing radiation physics, medical physics, biophysics, neutron physics, atomic physics, optical technology, optoelectronics, electromagnetics, time and frequency, quantum physics, weights and measures, quantum electrical metrology, temperature, pressure, flow, far UV physics, and metrology with synchrotron radiation.
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