Quantum sciences

Research activities in laser physics and in photonics technologies over the last two decades have continuously produced a large diversity of new advances. Several examples illustrate the major impact of optics in the quantum sciences, engineering, metrology, communication fiber networks, or highcapacity data storage. Besides these established fields of research and development for industry or for the consumer markets, laser optics will certainly disseminate in the near future in new areas such as biology, chemistry, medicine, or nanotechnologies.
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This book was conceived as a result of many years research with students and postdocs in molecular simulation, and shaped over several courses on the subject given at the University of Groningen, the Eidgen¨ossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Z¨urich, the University of Cambridge, UK, the University of Rome (La Sapienza), and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
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We consider a specialization of an untwisted quantum aﬃne algebra of type ADE at a nonzero complex number, which may or may not be a root of unity. The Grothendieck ring of its ﬁnite dimensional representations has two bases, simple modules and standard modules. We identify entries of the transition matrix with special values of “computable” polynomials, similar to KazhdanLusztig polynomials. At the same time we “compute” qcharacters for all simple modules. The result is based on “computations” of Betti numbers of graded/cyclic quiver varieties.
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We classify measures on the locally homogeneous space Γ\ SL(2, R) × L which are invariant and have positive entropy under the diagonal subgroup of SL(2, R) and recurrent under L. This classiﬁcation can be used to show arithmetic quantum unique ergodicity for compact arithmetic surfaces, and a similar but slightly weaker result for the ﬁnite volume case. Other applications are also presented. In the appendix, joint with D. Rudolph, we present a maximal ergodic theorem, related to a theorem of Hurewicz, which is used in theproof of the main result. ...
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Modelling and simulation are disciplines of major importance for science and engineering. There is no science without models, and simulation has nowadays become a very useful tool, sometimes unavoidable, for development of both science and engineering. The main attractive feature of cellular automata is that, in spite of their conceptual simplicity which allows an easiness of implementation for computer simulation, as a detailed and complete mathematical analysis in principle, they are able to exhibit a wide variety of amazingly complex behaviour....
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For many classically chaotic systems it is believed that the quantum wave functions become uniformly distributed, that is the matrix elements of smooth observables tend to the phase space average of the observable. In this paper we study the ﬂuctuations of the matrix elements for the desymmetrized quantum cat map. We present a conjecture for the distribution of the normalized matrix elements, namely that their distribution is that of a certain weighted sum of traces of independent matrices in SU(2).
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We prove that the sequence of projective quantum SU(n) representations of the mapping class group of a closed oriented surface, obtained from the projective ﬂat SU(n)Verlinde bundles over Teichm¨ller space, is asymptotically u faithful. That is, the intersection over all levels of the kernels of these representations is trivial, whenever the genus is at least 3. For the genus 2 case, this intersection is exactly the order 2 subgroup, generated by the hyperelliptic involution, in the case of even degree and n = 2. Otherwise the intersection is also trivial in the genus 2 case. ...
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The divergence of the photon selfenergy diagram in spinor quantum electrodynamics in (2 + 1) dimensional space time (QED3 ) is studied by the PauliVillars regularization and dimensional regularization. Results obtained by two different methods are coincided if the gauge invariant of theory is considered carefully step by step in these calculations
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Nanotechnologies have already attracted massive interest in multiple fields of science and industry. In the past decades, we have witnessed the progress in microlevel experimental techniques that revolutionize the material science. Designing new materials based on the knowledge of mechanics of their building blocks and microstructure manipulations at nanometer scale have become a reality. Nanoindentation, as a leading microlevel mechanical testing technique, has attracted wide attention in numerous research fields and applications....
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In this article, we report on the preparation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by solgel method and their optical properties. The average size of QDs is also estimated by using various ways, such as the Scherer’s formula, The EffrosBrusKayanuma’s theoretical expression, TEM etc. The TEM images of samples show that the mean sizes of QDs are 4 nm. The mean sizes of QDs are smaller than that of other methods and arranging from 2 to 3.6 nm.
5p tuanlocmuido 19122012 15 2 Download

The nonlinear absorption of a strong electromagnetic wave caused by confined electrons in cylindrical quantum wires is theoretically studied by using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons. The problem is considered in the case electronacoustic phonon scattering. Analytic expressions for the dependence of the nonlinear absorption coefficient of a strong electromagnetic wave by confined electrons in rectangular quantum wires on the temperature T are obtained.
6p tuanlocmuido 19122012 17 1 Download

Robotics and computer vision are interdisciplinary subjects at the intersection of engineering and computer science. By their nature, they deal with both computers and the physical world. Although the former are in the latter, the workings of computers are best described in the blackandwhite vocabulary of discrete mathematics, which is foreign to most classical models of reality, quantum physics notwithstanding. This class surveys some of the key tools of applied math to be used at the interface of continuous and discrete. It is not on robotics or computer vision.
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Nanomaterials, characterized by at least one dimension in the nanometer range, can be considered to constitute a bridge between single molecules and infinite bulk systems. Besides individual nanostructures involving clusters, nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanowires and nanotubes, collections of these nanostructures in the form of arrays and superlattices are of vital interest to the science and technology of nanomaterials.
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Readers of this book should have a strong background on physical electronics and semiconductor device physics. Philanthropists and readers with strong background in quantum transport physics and semiconductors materials could definitely benefit from the results presented in the chapters focusing on the different applications of carbon nanotubes.
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Science progresses by a symbiotic interaction between theory and experiment: theory is used to interpret experimental results and may suggest new experiments; experiment helps to test theoretical predictions and may lead to improved theories. Theoretical Chemistry (including Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics) provides the concep tual and technical background and apparatus for the rationalisation of phenomena in the chemical sciences. It is, therefore, a wide ranging subject, reflecting the diversity of molecular and related species and processes arising in chemical systems.
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Various mesoscopic systems have their own unique characteristics, some of which are of importance due to bridging function over classical and quantum mechanics. It is quite natural that human beings living in macroscopic world could hardly grasp the phenomena occurring in the microscopic world in an intuitive manner. This situation offers a vital sense in the "observation" problem necessarily accompanied with the classical means. The fundamental core of the argument between EinsteinPodolskyRosen and Bohr starting in 1935 actually lies in this point.
206p chuyenphimbuon 21072012 33 11 Download

I started my first photobiological research project almost exactly 50 years ago, in the spring of 1957. My scientific interest ever since has been focused on photobiology in its many aspects. Because I have been employed as a botanist, my own research has dealt with the photobiology of plants, but throughout this time I have been interested in other aspects, such as vision, the photobiology of skin, and bioluminescence. A first edition of the present book was published in 2002, but this second edition is much expanded and completely updated.
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My intention in this textbook is to provide a selfcontained exposition of the fundamentals and applications of statistical thermodynamics for beginning graduate students in the engineering sciences. Especially within engineering, most students enter a course in statistical thermodynamics with limited exposure to statistics, quantum mechanics, and spectroscopy. Hence, I have found it necessary over the years to “start from the beginning,” not leaving out intermediary steps and presuming little knowledge in the discrete, as compared to the continuum, domain of physics.
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This book is a collection of some of the invited talks presented at the international meeting held at the Max Planck Institut fiir Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany during August 630, 2001, on the rapidly developing field of nanoscale science and bioelectronics (http://www.mpipksdresden.mpg.de/~nanobio/). Semiconductor physics has experienced unprecedented developments over the second half of the twentieth century. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power and the size of dynamic memories has been achieved by significant downscahng of the minimum feature size.
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In this book, Applications of Monte Carlo Method in Science and Engineering, we further expose the broad range of applications of Monte Carlo simulation in the fields of Quantum Physics, Statistical Physics, Reliability, Medical Physics, Polycrystalline Materials, Ising Model, Chemistry, Agriculture, Food Processing, Xray Imaging, Electron Dynamics in Doped Semiconductors, Metallurgy, Remote Sensing and much more diverse topics. The book chapters included in this volume clearly reflect the current scientific importance of Monte Carlo techniques in various fields of research....
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