Science progresses by a symbiotic interaction between theory and experiment: theory is
used to interpret experimental results and may suggest new experiments; experiment
helps to test theoretical predictions and may lead to improved theories. Theoretical
Chemistry (including Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics) provides the concep-
tual and technical background and apparatus for the rationalisation of phenomena in the
chemical sciences. It is, therefore, a wide ranging subject, reflecting the diversity of
molecular and related species and processes arising in chemical systems.
The quantum theory is the first theoretical approach that helps one to successfully understand the atomic and sub-atomic worlds which are too far from the cognition based on the common intuition or the experience of the daily-life. This is a very coherent theory in which a good system of hypotheses and appropriate mathematical methods allow one to describe exactly the dynamics of the quantum systems whose measurements are systematically affected by objective uncertainties.
The book embraces a wide spectrum of problems falling under the concepts of "Quantum optics" and "Laser experiments". These actively developing branches of physics are of great significance both for theoretical understanding of the quantum nature of optical phenomena and for practical applications.
These days, it is impossible to think of an area of knowledge that can keep on
developing without a collaboration in interdisciplinary fields.
Electromotive force is a type of energy per unit of electric charge that is converted
reversibly from chemical, mechanical, or other forms of energy into electrical energy
by a dynamo, battery, electrochemical cells, thermoelectric devices, solar cells,
transformers, and so on.
The theory of electromotive Force is currently one of the most important research
topics within the electrical engineering domain.
As quantum theory enters its second century, it is fitting to examine just
how far it has come as a tool for the chemist. Beginning with Max Planck’s
agonizing conclusion in 1900 that linked energy emission in discreet bundles
to the resultant black-body radiation curve, a body of knowledge has
developed with profound consequences in our ability to understand nature.
In the early years, quantum theory was the providence of physicists and
certain breeds of physical chemists. While physicists honed and refined the
theory and studied...
Chaos and the quantum mechanical behaviour of classically chaotic systems have been
attracting increasing attention. Initially, there was perhaps more emphasis on the
theoretical side, but this is now being backed up by experimental work to an increasing
extent. The words 'Quantum Chaos' are often used these days, usually with an
undertone of unease, the reason being that, in contrast to classical chaos, quantum chaos
is ill defined; some authors say it is non-existent. So, why is it that an increasing
number of physicists are devoting their efforts to a subject so fuzzily defined?...
The goal of this book is to illustrate how control tools can be successfully applied
to micro- and nano-scale systems. The book partially explores the wide variety of
applicationswhere control can have a significant impact at themicro- and nanoscale,
and identifies key challenges and common approaches. This first chapter briefly
outlines the range of subjects within micro and nano control and introduces topics
that recur throughout the book.
Agriculture and forestry are poised on the brink of a quantum leap forward through the further application of exciting new tools such as genomics and transgenic plants. In the near future, it will be possible to produce a higher quantity of improved quality crops than even imagined just a few years ago. In addition to feed and food, it will be possible to provide raw materials for industrial uses. For example, cotton fibers, wood ligno-celluloses, corn carbohydrates, soybean oils, and other plant constituents will be altered via designed changes in metabolic pathways.
QDs play an important role mainly in the imaging and as highly fluorescent probes for
biological sensing that have better sensitivity, longer stability, good biocompatibility, and
minimum invasiveness. The fluorescent properties of QDs arise from the fact, that their
excitation states/band gaps are spatially confined, which results in physical and optical
properties intermediate between compounds and single molecules. Depending on chemical
composition and the size of the core which determines the quantum confinement, the
emission peak can vary from UV to NIR wavelengths (400–1350 nm).
Automation is the use of control systems (such as numerical control, programmable
logic control, and other industrial control systems), in concert with other applications of
information technology (such as computer-aided technologies [CAD, CAM, CAx]), to control
industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope
of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.
A semiconductor material has a resistivity lying between that of a conductor and that of an
insulator. However, in contrast to the granular materials used for resistors, a semiconductor
establishes its conduction properties through a complex quantum mechanical behavior within
a periodic array of semiconductor atoms, i.e., within a crystalline structure.
Nanomaterials, characterized by at least one dimension in the nanometer range,
can be considered to constitute a bridge between single molecules and infinite bulk
systems. Besides individual nanostructures involving clusters, nanoparticles,
quantum dots, nanowires and nanotubes, collections of these nanostructures in
the form of arrays and superlattices are of vital interest to the science and technology
It has been a great pleasure for me to have prepared the latest edition of my
book on nonlinear optics. My intrigue in the subject matter of this book is as
strong as it was when the first edition was published in 1992.
The principal changes present in the third edition are as follows: (1) The
book has been entirely rewritten using the SI system of units. I personally
prefer the elegance of the gaussian system of units, which was used in the first
two editions, but I realize that most readers would prefer the SI system, and
the change was made for this reason. (2) In...
This book is a collection of some of the invited talks presented at the international
meeting held at the Max Planck Institut fiir Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden,
Germany during August 6-30, 2001, on the rapidly developing field of nanoscale
science and bio-electronics (http://www.mpipks-dresden.mpg.de/~nanobio/).
Semiconductor physics has experienced unprecedented developments over the second
half of the twentieth century. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing
power and the size of dynamic memories has been achieved by significant downscahng
of the minimum feature size.
This chapter discusses the problematic nature of interfacial
sciences when constrained to the mesoscale. Interfacial
sciences are trapped between the atomistic and the three-
dimensional bulk regimes - the mesoscale. We experience a
breakdown of phenomenological descriptions used to
characterize macrosystems. Furthermore, submicrometer
systems with their fractal-like dimension cannot be adequately
described with quantum or molecular interaction theories. The
challenge of describing the mesoscale for the...
Because of their apparent “simplicity” simple atoms present a great challenge
and temptation to experts in various branches of physics from fundamental problems
of particle physics to astrophysics, applied physics and metrology. This
book is based on the presentations at the International Conference on Precision
Physics of Simple Atomic Systems (PSAS 2002) whose primary target was to
provide an effective exchange between physicists from different fields.
Agriculture and forestry are poised on the brink of a quantum leap forward
through the further application of exciting new tools such as genomics and
transgenic plants. In the near future, it will be possible to produce a higher
quantity of improved quality crops than even imagined just a few years ago.
In addition to feed and food, it will be possible to provide raw materials for
industrial uses. For example, cotton fibers, wood ligno-celluloses, corn
carbohydrates, soybean oils, and other plant constituents will be altered via
designed changes in metabolic pathways.
ctical Statecharts in C/C++: Quantum Programming for Embedded S
Table of Contents
Practical Statecharts in C/C++−Quantum Programming for Embedded Systems......................................1 Preface..................................................................................................................................................................3 Mission .....................................................................................................................................................3 Why Quantum Programming?............................................
Putting the quantum into magnetism might, at first sight, seem like stating
the obvious; the exchange interactions leading to collective magnetic behavior
are, after all, a pure quantum effect. Yet, for many phenomena in magnetism
this underlying quantum nature may be safely ignored at least on the qualitative
level. The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects
play a dominant role and have to be accounted for in detail has, over the
last decades, evolved to be a field of very active research....
Quantum dots are one of the most promising types of nanoparticles, which are
exceptionally useful for variety of new applications because of their unique properties.
This is a collaborative book sharing and providing the academic community with a
base text that could serve as a reference in research by presenting up-to-date research
work on the field of quantum dot systems. We are most grateful to all authors of the
chapters for highlighting the important issue of the potential applications of quantum
dot system with a high quality work of their research....