Quantum systems.

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  • Science progresses by a symbiotic interaction between theory and experiment: theory is used to interpret experimental results and may suggest new experiments; experiment helps to test theoretical predictions and may lead to improved theories. Theoretical Chemistry (including Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics) provides the concep- tual and technical background and apparatus for the rationalisation of phenomena in the chemical sciences. It is, therefore, a wide ranging subject, reflecting the diversity of molecular and related species and processes arising in chemical systems.

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  • The quantum theory is the first theoretical approach that helps one to successfully understand the atomic and sub-atomic worlds which are too far from the cognition based on the common intuition or the experience of the daily-life. This is a very coherent theory in which a good system of hypotheses and appropriate mathematical methods allow one to describe exactly the dynamics of the quantum systems whose measurements are systematically affected by objective uncertainties.

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  • The book embraces a wide spectrum of problems falling under the concepts of "Quantum optics" and "Laser experiments". These actively developing branches of physics are of great significance both for theoretical understanding of the quantum nature of optical phenomena and for practical applications.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Introduction to quantum computers" has contents: Unitary transformations and quantum dynamics, quantum dynamics at finite temperature, physical realization of quantum computations, linear chains of nuclear spins, experimental logic gates in quantum systems, error correction for quantum computers,...and other contents.

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  • These days, it is impossible to think of an area of knowledge that can keep on developing without a collaboration in interdisciplinary fields. Electromotive force is a type of energy per unit of electric charge that is converted reversibly from chemical, mechanical, or other forms of energy into electrical energy by a dynamo, battery, electrochemical cells, thermoelectric devices, solar cells, transformers, and so on. The theory of electromotive Force is currently one of the most important research topics within the electrical engineering domain.

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  • As quantum theory enters its second century, it is fitting to examine just how far it has come as a tool for the chemist. Beginning with Max Planck’s agonizing conclusion in 1900 that linked energy emission in discreet bundles to the resultant black-body radiation curve, a body of knowledge has developed with profound consequences in our ability to understand nature. In the early years, quantum theory was the providence of physicists and certain breeds of physical chemists. While physicists honed and refined the theory and studied...

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  • Chaos and the quantum mechanical behaviour of classically chaotic systems have been attracting increasing attention. Initially, there was perhaps more emphasis on the theoretical side, but this is now being backed up by experimental work to an increasing extent. The words 'Quantum Chaos' are often used these days, usually with an undertone of unease, the reason being that, in contrast to classical chaos, quantum chaos is ill defined; some authors say it is non-existent. So, why is it that an increasing number of physicists are devoting their efforts to a subject so fuzzily defined?...

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Introduction to quantum computers" has contents: Introduction, the turing machine, binary system and boolean algebra, the quantum computer, the discrete fourier transform, quantum factorization of integers, logic gates, implementation of logic gates using transistors, reversible logic gates,...and other contents.

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  • The goal of this book is to illustrate how control tools can be successfully applied to micro- and nano-scale systems. The book partially explores the wide variety of applicationswhere control can have a significant impact at themicro- and nanoscale, and identifies key challenges and common approaches. This first chapter briefly outlines the range of subjects within micro and nano control and introduces topics that recur throughout the book.

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  • QDs play an important role mainly in the imaging and as highly fluorescent probes for biological sensing that have better sensitivity, longer stability, good biocompatibility, and minimum invasiveness. The fluorescent properties of QDs arise from the fact, that their excitation states/band gaps are spatially confined, which results in physical and optical properties intermediate between compounds and single molecules. Depending on chemical composition and the size of the core which determines the quantum confinement, the emission peak can vary from UV to NIR wavelengths (400–1350 nm).

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  • Agriculture and forestry are poised on the brink of a quantum leap forward through the further application of exciting new tools such as genomics and transgenic plants. In the near future, it will be possible to produce a higher quantity of improved quality crops than even imagined just a few years ago.  In addition to feed and food, it will be possible to provide raw materials for industrial uses. For example, cotton fibers, wood ligno-celluloses, corn  carbohydrates, soybean oils, and other plant constituents will be altered via designed changes in metabolic pathways.

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  • Automation is the use of control systems (such as numerical control, programmable logic control, and other industrial control systems), in concert with other applications of information technology (such as computer-aided technologies [CAD, CAM, CAx]), to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.

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  • A semiconductor material has a resistivity lying between that of a conductor and that of an insulator. However, in contrast to the granular materials used for resistors, a semiconductor establishes its conduction properties through a complex quantum mechanical behavior within a periodic array of semiconductor atoms, i.e., within a crystalline structure.

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  • Nanomaterials, characterized by at least one dimension in the nanometer range, can be considered to constitute a bridge between single molecules and infinite bulk systems. Besides individual nanostructures involving clusters, nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanowires and nanotubes, collections of these nanostructures in the form of arrays and superlattices are of vital interest to the science and technology of nanomaterials.

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  • It has been a great pleasure for me to have prepared the latest edition of my book on nonlinear optics. My intrigue in the subject matter of this book is as strong as it was when the first edition was published in 1992. The principal changes present in the third edition are as follows: (1) The book has been entirely rewritten using the SI system of units. I personally prefer the elegance of the gaussian system of units, which was used in the first two editions, but I realize that most readers would prefer the SI system, and the change was made for this reason. (2) In...

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  • This book is a collection of some of the invited talks presented at the international meeting held at the Max Planck Institut fiir Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany during August 6-30, 2001, on the rapidly developing field of nanoscale science and bio-electronics (http://www.mpipks-dresden.mpg.de/~nanobio/). Semiconductor physics has experienced unprecedented developments over the second half of the twentieth century. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power and the size of dynamic memories has been achieved by significant downscahng of the minimum feature size.

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  • Because of their apparent “simplicity” simple atoms present a great challenge and temptation to experts in various branches of physics from fundamental problems of particle physics to astrophysics, applied physics and metrology. This book is based on the presentations at the International Conference on Precision Physics of Simple Atomic Systems (PSAS 2002) whose primary target was to provide an effective exchange between physicists from different fields.

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  • This chapter discusses the problematic nature of interfacial sciences when constrained to the mesoscale. Interfacial sciences are trapped between the atomistic and the three- dimensional bulk regimes - the mesoscale. We experience a breakdown of phenomenological descriptions used to characterize macrosystems. Furthermore, submicrometer systems with their fractal-like dimension cannot be adequately described with quantum or molecular interaction theories. The challenge of describing the mesoscale for the...

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  • Semiconductor lasers are among the most important optoelectronics devices. Remarkable development has been accomplished in the three decades since the first achievement in room-temperature continuous oscillation, which opened the possibility of practical applications of semiconductor lasers. Today, various types of semiconductor lasers are mass-produced and widely used as coherent light sources for a variety of applications, including optical fiber communication systems and optical disk memory systems....

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  • Putting the quantum into magnetism might, at first sight, seem like stating the obvious; the exchange interactions leading to collective magnetic behavior are, after all, a pure quantum effect. Yet, for many phenomena in magnetism this underlying quantum nature may be safely ignored at least on the qualitative level. The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects play a dominant role and have to be accounted for in detail has, over the last decades, evolved to be a field of very active research....

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