Quantum theory of light

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  • At the end of the 19-th century, physics was at its most confidence situation. Classical phyics, as formulated in Newton’s law of mechanics and Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism, have proved very successful in solving every problem. →At that time there seemed to be no question for which physics could not provide an answer !!! But then it came as a great shock when some simple phenomena were observed which could not be explained by classical physics →a new theory, quantum theory, was developed at the beginning of the 20-th century...

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  • It has been known from the previous chapter that light, and in general, electromagnetic waves have particle behavior. Some latter time than the quantum theory of light, it was discovered that particles show also wavelike behavior. The wave-particle duality of matter is the fundamental concept of modern physics Newton’s classical physics should be replaced by the new mechanics which is able to describe the wave nature of particles

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  • The quantum theory is the first theoretical approach that helps one to successfully understand the atomic and sub-atomic worlds which are too far from the cognition based on the common intuition or the experience of the daily-life. This is a very coherent theory in which a good system of hypotheses and appropriate mathematical methods allow one to describe exactly the dynamics of the quantum systems whose measurements are systematically affected by objective uncertainties.

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  • The field of photonics is enormously broad, covering everything from light sources to geometric and wave optics to fiber optics. Laser and light source technology is a subset of photonics whose importance is often underestimated. This book focuses on these technologies with a good degree of depth, without attempting to be overly broad and all-inclusive of various photonics concepts. For example, fiber optics is largely omitted in this book except when relevant, such as when fiber amplifiers are examined.

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  • Light is just one portion of the various electromagnetic waves flying through space. The electromagnetic spectrum covers an extremely broad range, from radio waves with wavelengths of a meter or more, down to x-rays with wavelengths of less than a billionth of a meter. Optical radiation lies between radio waves and x-rays on the spectrum, exhibiting a unique mix of ray, wave, and quantum properties.

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  • The word itself, quantum, denotes a small packet of energy—a very small one. In quantum mechanics, as the quantum theory is called, we deal with the basic building blocks of matter, the constituent particles from which everything in the universe is made. These particles include atoms, molecules, neutrons, protons, electrons, quarks, as well as photons—the basic units of light.

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  • The photocatalytic oxidation of reactive blue 2 and reactive red 120 has been studied by using TiO2 Degussa P25 as catalyst and UV-light. The formation of intermediate molecules could be predicted on the basic of point charge calculations on all the individual atoms of the dyes. The agreement between calculations from quantum theory and the results of experiments was the background to establish a pathway for degradation of reactive dyes. A plausible mechanism of dye photodegradations is discussed.

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