R in action

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  • R in Action is the first book to present both the R system and the use cases that make it such a compelling package for business developers. The book begins by introducing the R language, including the development environment. Focusing on practical solutions, the book also offers a crash course in practical statistics and covers elegant methods for dealing with messy and incomplete data using features of R.

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  • In this paper, we present a reinforcement learning approach for mapping natural language instructions to sequences of executable actions. We assume access to a reward function that defines the quality of the executed actions. During training, the learner repeatedly constructs action sequences for a set of documents, executes those actions, and observes the resulting reward. We use a policy gradient algorithm to estimate the parameters of a log-linear model for action selection.

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  • Dynamic Games are mathematical models of the interaction between different agents who are controlling a dynamical system. Such situations occur in many instances like armed conflicts (e.g. duel between a bomber and a jet fighter), economic competition (e.g. investments in R&D for computer companies), parlor games (Chess, Bridge).

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  • Annals of Mathematics By Curtis T. McMullen* .Annals of Mathematics, 165 (2007), 397–456 Dynamics of SL2(R) over moduli space in genus two By Curtis T. McMullen* Abstract This paper classifies orbit closures and invariant measures for the natural action of SL2 (R) on ΩM2 , the bundle of holomorphic 1-forms over the moduli space of Riemann surfaces of genus two. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Dynamics and Lie groups 3. Riemann surfaces and holomorphic 1-forms 4. Abelian varieties with real multiplication 5. Recognizing eigenforms 6. Algebraic sums of 1-forms 7.

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  • To determine the reliability of applying these categories to specific song lyrics, two observers independently classified the reproductive themes present in written versions of the reproductively relevant phrases extracted from a representative sample of the Pop, Country, and R&B songs. The number of phrases containing reproductive messages ranged from 2 (“White Horse” and “Second Chance”) to 29 (“Baby By Me”) for a total of 219 reproductive phrases, with an average of 8.76 different reproductive references per song.

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  • Before entering upon our subject proper, we think it advisable to explain a few points, simple though they are, which might cause confusion to some readers. Our experience has shown us that as soon as we use the words "millimeter" and "degree," perplexity is the result. "What is a millimeter?" is propounded to us very often in the course of a year; nearly every new acquaintance is interested in having the metric system of measurement, together with the fine gauges used, explained to him.

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  • Unfortunately, the United States lags behind other countries in recognizing the importance of robotics technology. While the European Union, Japan, Korea, and the rest of the world have made significant R&D investments in robotics technology, the U.S. investment, outside unmanned systems for defense purposes, remains practically non-existent.

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  • This book has developed from a series of lectures given in November 2000 at Cambridge University’s Lauterpacht Research Centre for In- ternational Law. Both that institution’s founder, Professor Sir Elihu Lauterpacht, and its director, Professor James R. Crawford, served up invaluable insights together with fulsome hospitality. The Centre’s fac- ulty, fellows and students stimulated and prodded my thinking about the role of law in a world still so far short of the goals set by Judge Sir Hersch Lauterpacht....

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  • Dialog participants in a non-mixed initiative dialogs, in which one participant asks questions exclusively and the other participant responds to those questions exclusively, can select actions that minimize the expected length of the dialog. The choice of question that minimizes the expected number of questions to be asked can be computed in polynomial time in some cases. The polynomial-time solutions to special cases of the problem suggest a number of strategies for selecting dialog actions in the intractable general case. ...

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  • Comprehending action preconditions and effects is an essential step in modeling the dynamics of the world. In this paper, we express the semantics of precondition relations extracted from text in terms of planning operations. The challenge of modeling this connection is to ground language at the level of relations. This type of grounding enables us to create high-level plans based on language abstractions.

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  • It is not e n o u g h that a translation system produces superficially a c c e p t a b l e output for a wide class of inputs, it should aim to produce outputs which represent as nearly as possible translations of the inputs. If it cannot do this, then in some cases it will be better if it i n d i c a t e s as much, so that other action can be taken. F r o m the point of view we adopt, it is possible to regard MT and...

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  • It is easy to see that the tree property would be destroyed if these connections w e r e i n c l u d e d as edges in the tree. To save the t r e e property Kunze introduced the mechanism of paths of action for t h e p a r a d i g m a t i c and s e l e c t i v e connections.

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  • This tool will be most useful in the early phase of a terrorism event or major public health emergency but also has relevance for other public health events, such as disease outbreaks. It is not meant to supplant other works from either private or governmental sources but rather, to provide a different and complementary perspective. What is different here is that this guide assembles a wide variety of resources and filters them through the lens of public health action immediately following a major public health event.

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  • Chapter 21 - Income inequality, poverty and discrimination. In this chapter we will explore income inequality and actions that can be taken by government to try to correct income inequality, using the Lorenz curve and Gini ratio to help with this evaluation. We will then define poverty and look at how it affects different groups. We will also discuss government programs to aid families in poverty. Lastly we analyze discrimination and how this impacts wages.

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  • Conclusion Templates 73 Rhetorical Question Conclusion Template 1 This template points out the limitations of what you have done with a question. The question is called "rhetorical" because it is not a true question. It is an answer in the guise of a question. Note that the subject and verb can be made plural (Is this/Are these). After the first template, you need to expand the new thought—explain it and perhaps give examples. f Is this the only possible interpretation of choice in/of solution for/of course of action in Of course not. ? -\ Example A r e t h e s e t h e o...

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  • CHAPTER 4 CONDUCTING MARKETING RESEARCH AND FORECASTING DEMAND. 1 In addition t o m o n i t o r i n g a changing m a r k e t i n g environment, marketers also need t o develop specific k n o w l e d g e a b o u t their particular markets. G o o d marketers w a n t information t o help t h e m interp r e t past performance as w e l l as plan future activities. Marketers need timely, accurate, and actionable i n f o r m a t i o n on consumers, c o m p e t i t i o n , and t h e i r brands.

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  • CHAPTER 6 ■ PASSWORD PROTECTION SENSITIVE ACTIONS AND AREAS include_once 'assets/common/footer.inc.php'; ? Now save this code and try to directly access http://localhost/confirmdelete.php while logged out. As expected, you’ll be redirected to http://localhost/ instead. Summary In this chapter, you learned how to add user authorization to your calendar app, which means only authorized users can now make modifications to the calendar. You learned how to create the Admin class, check login credentials, display admin tools to admins only, and limit access to admin pages.

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  • Governments also need to focus on medium to long-term actions to strengthen innovation. A broad range of policy reforms will be needed in OECD countries and non-OECD economies to respond to the changing nature of the innovation process and strengthen innovation performance to foster sustainable growth and address key global challenges.

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  • A WIKI 75 66 67 68 69 70 71 pattern = '%' + request.vars.keyword.lower() + '%' pages = db(db.page.title.lower().like(pattern))\ .select(orderby=db.page.title) items = [A(row.title, _href=URL(r=request, f=show, args=row.id)) \ for row in pages] return UL(*items).xml() Lines 2-6 provide a comment for the index action. Lines 4-5 inside the comment are interpreted by python as test code (doctest). Tests can be run via the admin interface. In this case the tests verify that the index action runs without errors. Lines 19, 33, and 43 try fetch a page record with the id in request.args(0).

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  • Introduction One of the central concerns of a theory of pra~atics is to explain what actions language users p e r f o r m by making utterances. This concern is also relevant to the designers of conversational language understanding systems, especially those intended to cooperate with a user in t h e e x e c u t i o n o f some t a s k ( e . g . , t h e Computer C o n s u l t a n t t a s k d i s c u s...

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