R in Action is the first book to present both the R system and the use cases that make it such a compelling package for business developers. The book begins by introducing the R language, including the development environment. Focusing on practical solutions, the book also offers a crash course in practical statistics and covers elegant methods for dealing with messy and incomplete data using features of R.
In this paper, we present a reinforcement learning approach for mapping natural language instructions to sequences of executable actions. We assume access to a reward function that deﬁnes the quality of the executed actions. During training, the learner repeatedly constructs action sequences for a set of documents, executes those actions, and observes the resulting reward. We use a policy gradient algorithm to estimate the parameters of a log-linear model for action selection.
Chapter 4 - Business-level strategy. Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategic management knowledge needed to: Define business-level strategy; discuss the relationship between customers and business-level strategies in terms of who, what, and how; explain the differences among business-level strategies;...
Chapter 7 - Acquisition and restructuring strategies. Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategic management knowledge needed to: Explain the popularity of acquisition strategies in firms competing in the global economy, discuss reasons why firms use an acquisition strategy to achieve strategic competitiveness, describe seven problems that work against developing a competitive advantage using an acquisition strategy,...
Chapter 9 - Cooperative strategy. The learning objectives for this chapter include: Define cooperative strategies and explain why firms use them, define and discuss three types of strategic alliances, name the business-level cooperative strategies and describe their use, discuss the use of corporate-level cooperative strategies in diversified firms,...
Chapter 10 - Corporate governance. Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategic management knowledge needed to: Define corporate governance and explain why it is used to monitor and control managers’strategic decisions, explain why ownership has been largely separated from managerial control in the modern corporation, define an agency relationship and managerial opportunism and describe their strategic implications,...
Chapter 12 - Strategic leadership. After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Define strategic leadership and describe the importance of top-level managers, define top management teams and explain their effects on firm performance, describe the managerial succession process using internal and external managerial labor markets,...
Dynamic Games are mathematical models of the interaction between different agents
who are controlling a dynamical system. Such situations occur in many instances like
armed conﬂicts (e.g. duel between a bomber and a jet ﬁghter), economic competition
(e.g. investments in R&D for computer companies), parlor games (Chess, Bridge).
Annals of Mathematics
By Curtis T. McMullen*
.Annals of Mathematics, 165 (2007), 397–456
Dynamics of SL2(R) over moduli space in genus two
By Curtis T. McMullen*
Abstract This paper classiﬁes orbit closures and invariant measures for the natural action of SL2 (R) on ΩM2 , the bundle of holomorphic 1-forms over the moduli space of Riemann surfaces of genus two. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Dynamics and Lie groups 3. Riemann surfaces and holomorphic 1-forms 4. Abelian varieties with real multiplication 5. Recognizing eigenforms 6. Algebraic sums of 1-forms 7.
To determine the reliability of applying these categories to specific song lyrics, two
observers independently classified the reproductive themes present in written versions of
the reproductively relevant phrases extracted from a representative sample of the Pop,
Country, and R&B songs. The number of phrases containing reproductive messages ranged
from 2 (“White Horse” and “Second Chance”) to 29 (“Baby By Me”) for a total of 219
reproductive phrases, with an average of 8.76 different reproductive references per song.
Before entering upon our subject proper, we think it advisable to explain a few points, simple though they are,
which might cause confusion to some readers. Our experience has shown us that as soon as we use the words
"millimeter" and "degree," perplexity is the result. "What is a millimeter?" is propounded to us very often in
the course of a year; nearly every new acquaintance is interested in having the metric system of measurement,
together with the fine gauges used, explained to him.
Unfortunately, the United States lags behind other countries in recognizing the importance of robotics
technology. While the European Union, Japan, Korea, and the rest of the world have made significant
R&D investments in robotics technology, the U.S. investment, outside unmanned systems for defense
purposes, remains practically non-existent.
This book has developed from a series of lectures given in November
2000 at Cambridge University’s Lauterpacht Research Centre for In-
ternational Law. Both that institution’s founder, Professor Sir Elihu
Lauterpacht, and its director, Professor James R. Crawford, served up
invaluable insights together with fulsome hospitality. The Centre’s fac-
ulty, fellows and students stimulated and prodded my thinking about the
role of law in a world still so far short of the goals set by Judge Sir Hersch
Dialog participants in a non-mixed initiative dialogs, in which one participant asks questions exclusively and the other participant responds to those questions exclusively, can select actions that minimize the expected length of the dialog. The choice of question that minimizes the expected number of questions to be asked can be computed in polynomial time in some cases. The polynomial-time solutions to special cases of the problem suggest a number of strategies for selecting dialog actions in the intractable general case. ...
Comprehending action preconditions and effects is an essential step in modeling the dynamics of the world. In this paper, we express the semantics of precondition relations extracted from text in terms of planning operations. The challenge of modeling this connection is to ground language at the level of relations. This type of grounding enables us to create high-level plans based on language abstractions.
It is not e n o u g h that a translation system produces superficially a c c e p t a b l e output for a wide class of inputs, it should aim to produce outputs which represent as nearly as possible translations of the inputs. If it cannot do this, then in some cases it will be better if it i n d i c a t e s as much, so that other action can be taken. F r o m the point of view we adopt, it is possible to regard MT and...
It is easy to see that the tree property would be destroyed if these connections w e r e i n c l u d e d as edges in the tree. To save the t r e e property Kunze introduced the mechanism of paths of action for t h e p a r a d i g m a t i c and s e l e c t i v e connections.
Chapter 21 - Income inequality, poverty and discrimination. In this chapter we will explore income inequality and actions that can be taken by government to try to correct income inequality, using the Lorenz curve and Gini ratio to help with this evaluation. We will then define poverty and look at how it affects different groups. We will also discuss government programs to aid families in poverty. Lastly we analyze discrimination and how this impacts wages.
This tool will be most useful in the early phase of a terrorism
event or major public health emergency but also has relevance
for other public health events, such as disease outbreaks. It is
not meant to supplant other works from either private or
governmental sources but rather, to provide a different and
complementary perspective. What is different here is that this
guide assembles a wide variety of resources and filters them
through the lens of public health action immediately following
a major public health event.
"Principles of instrumental analysis" has long been the standard for courses that deal with the principles and applications of modern analytical instruments. Now with their new Sixth Edition, authors Douglas A. Skoog, F. James Holler, and Stanley R. Crouch infuse their popular text with updated techniques as well as new Instrumental Analysis in Action case studies.