R syntax

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  • It’s been over 10 years since I was first introduced to R. Back then, I was a young product development manager at DoubleClick, a company that sold advertising software for managing online ad sales. I was working on inventory prediction: estimating the number of ad impressions that could be sold for a given search term, web page, or demographic characteristic. I wanted to play with the data myself, but we couldn’t afford a piece of expensive software like SAS or MATLAB. I looked around for a little while, trying to find an open-source statistics package, and stumbled on R.

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  • This paper describes the structure and e v a l u a t i o n of the s y n t a c t i c o - s e m a n t i c lexicon (SSL) of the German Natural Language Understanding System VIE-LANG [3]. VIE-LANG uses an SI-Net [2] as internal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The SSL c o n t a i n s the rules according to which the mapping between net-structures and surface s t r u c t u r...

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  • An approach to abductive inference developed in the TACITUS project has resulted in a dramatic simplification of how the problem of interpreting texts is conceptualized. Its use in solving the local pragmatics problems of reference, compound nominals, syntactic ambiguity, and metonymy is described and illustrated. It also suggests an elegant and thorough integration of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

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  • HHTP CLIENT EXAMPLE *HTTP RFC SP: space (khoang trang) CRLF: \r\n REQUEST SYNTAX: Request = Request-Line *( general-header | request-header | entity-header ) CRLF [ message-body ]

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  • It is argued that syntactic p r e f e r e n c e principles such as Right A s s o c i a t i o n and Minimal Attachment are unsatisfactory as usually formulated. Among the difficulties are: (I) dependence on ill-specified or implausible principles of p a r s e r operation; (2) d e p e n d e n c e on questionable a s s u m p t i o n s about syntax; (3) lack Of provision, even in principle, for i n t e g r a...

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  • The notion of mild context-sensitivity was formulated in an attempt to express the formal power which is both necessary and sufficient to define the syntax of natural languages. However, some linguistic phenomena such as Chinese numbers and German word scrambling lie beyond the realm of mildly contextsensitive formalisms. On the other hand, the class of range concatenation grammars provides added power w.r.t, mildly context-sensitive grammars while keeping a polynomial parse time behavior.

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  • Marcus [3] notes that the syntax of English comparative constructions is highly complex, and claims that both syntactic end semantic information must be available for them to be parsed. This paper argues that comparatives can be structurally analyzed on the basis of syntactic information alone via a s t r i c t l y surface-based grammar. Such a grammaris given in Ryan [5], based on the corepresentational model of Kac I l l . While the grammar does not define a parsing algorithm per se, i t nonetheless expresses regularities of surface organization and i t s...

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  • This paper describes a natural language processing system implemented at Hewlett-Packard's Computer Research Center. The system's main components are: a Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG); a top-down parser; a logic transducer that outputs a first-order logical representation; and a "disambiguator" that uses sortal information to convert "normal-form" f i r s t - o r d e r logical expressions into the q u e r y language for HIRE, a relational database hosted in the SPHERE system.

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  • intermediate depencies between morphology, syntax and semantics. A strong, multidimensional formalism that can cope with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of language seems necessary. In t h i s chapter a graph grammar formalism based on the notions of r e l a t i o n a l graph grammars ( R a j l i c h 1975) and a t t r i b u t e d programmed graph grammars (Bunke 1982) is developed f o r parsing languages with configurational structure .

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  • We describe a prototype SK~RED CmAt~eAR for the syntax of simple nominal expressions in Arabic, E~IL~lx, French, German, and Japanese implemented at MCC. In this Oamm~', a complex inheritance ian/cc of shared gr~mmAtlcal templates provides pans that each language can put together to form lansuug~specific gramm-ti~tl templates. We conclude that grammar shsrin8 is not only possible but also desirable. It forces us to reveal crossliuguistically invm'iant grammatie~ primitives that may otherwise r e m ~ conflamd with other primitives if we deal only with a single ~.nousge or l-n~uuge type. ...

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  • Command relations are important tools in linguistics, especially in a n a p h o r a theory. In this paper I present an indexing technique which allows us to implement a simple and efficient check for most cases of c o m m a n d relations which have been presented in linguistic literature. I also show a wide perspective of applications for the indexing technique in the implementation of other linguistic phenomena in syntax as well as in semantics.

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  • The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. 1 The construction of semantic representations is guided" by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence.

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