One of the most important inventions for the development of radars was made by
Christian Huelsmeyer in 1904. The German scientist demonstrated the possibility of
detecting metallic objects at a distance of a few kilometres. While many basic principles of
radar, namely using electromagnetic waves to measure the range, altitude, direction or
speed of objects are remained up to now practically unchanged, the user requirements and
technologies to realise modern radar systems are highly elaborated....
The advent of novel materials for electronics, optoelectronics and nanoelectronics holds the
promise for new microelectronic device designs and applications across all fields of science
and technology. Furthermore, the increasing sophistication of fabrication processes and
techniques used in the semiconductor industry has resulted in the ability to produce circuits
of greater complexity at remarkably reduced costs, a trend which has been continuing over
the past half-century.
Diabetes represents a major threat to public health with alarmingly rising trends of
incidence and severity in recent years, as it appears to correlate closely with emerging
patterns of nutrition/diet and behavior/exercise worldwide. The concentration of blood
glucose in healthy human subjects is about 90 mg/dl and defines the state of
normoglycaemia. Significant and prolonged deviations from this level may give rise to
numerous pathologies with serious and extensive clinical impact that is increasingly
recognized by current medical practice....
The oscillator in communication and measurement systems, be they radio, coaxial cable, microwave, satellite, radar or optical fibre, defines the reference signal onto which modulation is coded and later demodulated. The flicker and phase noise in such oscillators are central in setting the ultimate systems performance limits of modern communications, radar and timing systems. These oscillators are therefore required to be of the highest quality for the particular application as they provide the reference for data modulation and demodulation. ...
ACCEPTABLE DEGRADATION - The allowable reduction in system performance. For a fire control radar, the
acceptable degradation is usually expressed as a reduction in range; for example, the maximum lock-on range might be
degraded by 25 percent without loss of essential defense capability.