The cost of operating a building far exceeds the cost of constructing it, and yet until recently little attention was paid to the impact of solar radiation on the costs of heating, cooling and ventilation. And now that there has been a surge in interest in energy efficiency and solar design, architects and designers need a practical guide to the modelling and application of solar energy data.
AT THE transition to the new millennium the future of nuclear energy looks
brighter. Nuclear power plants worldwide have operated safely.
Applications for extension of reactor operating licenses in the U.S. are in
place and construction is continuing abroad.
Uses of isotopes and radiation in applications to medicine, research, and
industry continue to assure human benefit. Research and development are
active in the areas of controlled fusion, accelerator uses, isotope separation,
space exploration, and excess weapons material disposition.
Gamma rays were discovered by Villard more than a hundred years ago. Rutherford
gave the name -rays to the electrically neutral radiation emitted by the naturally
occurring radioactive materials.
Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, photons, which arises due to energy
changes in the nucleus. It does not appear as an independent form of radiation, but it
follows and β decay, in those cases when the newly created core of the offspring is
found in the excited state.
The Energy Efficiency Manual is your primary tool for improving energy efficiency and reducing
your utility costs. It is a comprehensive, step-by-step guide that is designed to help you manage
your activities effectively and with confidence.
The core of the Energy Efficiency Manual is 400 energy efficiency “Measures.” The Measures
have a standard format that makes it easy to organize them into an optimum efficiency program for
your facility. Refer to the inside of the front cover to learn how to exploit the Measures....
The book contains fundamentals of solar radiation, its ecological impacts, applications, especially in agriculture, architecture, thermal and electric energy. Chapters are written by numerous experienced scientists in the field from various parts of the world. Apart from chapter one which is the introductory chapter of the book, that gives a general topic insight of the book, there are 24 more chapters that cover various fields of solar radiation.
This book covers the areas of fundamentals in energy conservation and its applications in selected industries. There are nine chapters in this book which have been written by leading experts in energy from all over the world. The topics range from energy fundamentals from cosmic radiation, tidal waves and dams. The chapters examine the potential of utilizing energy from sustainable resources and how energy consumption may be conserved from various new technologies.
Before we can talk about solar power, we need to talk
about the sun
• Need to know how much sunlight is available
• Can predict where the sun is at any time
• Insolation : incident solar radiation
• Want to determine the average daily insolation at a site
• Want to be able to chose effective locations and panel
tilts of solar panels
Radiation, Health and Society The Nuclear Phenomenon Radioactive Decay Radiation all Around Us Radiation and Living Tissue Radiation Protection High Doses Nuclear Power Chernobyl - A Case Study Conclusion...
Solar energy, light and heat radiation from the Sun, has been exploited by humans since ancient times using a variety of technology development than ever before. Solar radiation along with secondary resources of energy like wind and solar energy, water power and biomass, make the most of renewable energy available on earth. Only a tiny fraction of the available solar energy is used.
Solar energy is defined as that radiant energy transmitted by the sun and intercepted by earth. It is
transmitted through space to earth by electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging between
0.20 and 15 microns.
In the long term, the earth must shed energy into space at the same rate at
which it absorbs energy from the sun. Solar energy arrives in the form of shortwavelength
radiation. Some of this radiation is reflected away by the earth's
surface and atmosphere. Most of it, however, passes straight through the
atmosphere to warm the earth's surface. The earth gets rid of this energy
(sends it back out into space) in the form of long wavelength, infra-red
Solar cells are optoelectronic devices that convert the energy of solar radiation directly
into electricity by the photovoltaic (PV) effect. Assemblies of cells electrically
connected together are known as PV modules, or solar panels. The photovoltaic effect
was first recognized in the 19th century but the modern PV cells were developed in
the mid-1950s. The practical application of photovoltaics started to provide energy for
Enormous number of books, reviews and original papers concerning engineering
applications of heat transfer has already been published and numerous new
publications appear every year due to exceptionally wide list of objects and processes
that require to be considered with a view to thermal energy redistribution. All the
three mechanisms of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) contribute to
energy redistribution, however frequently the dominant mechanism can be singled
In this chapter, we will ﬁnd out how to get the most solar energy out of the sun by considering the time, the altitude angle, the radiation and the photovoltaic (PV) materials. A simple PV model helps to understand the mechanism of energy conversion - solar to electricity. We will further use a simple equivalent circuit to represent a PV cell to investigate its current-voltage characteristics.
Fuel Injection is a key process characterising the combustion development within Spark-
Ignition (SI) and Compression Ignition (CI) Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Fuel Injection
and Spray Behaviour in fact largely control the fuel-air mixing, combustion process efficiency,
stability, the production of noxious species, the radiated noise, etc.The proper design of the
fuel injection system requires the employment of both experimental and numerical techniques,
sometimes coupled for optimisation procedures....
During the last years, spectacular progress has been made in all aspects of heat transfer.
Heat transfer is a branch of engineering science and technology that deals with the
analysis of the rate of transfer thermal energy. Its fundamental modes are conduction,
convection, radiation, convection vs. conduction and mass transfer. It has a broad application
to many diff erent branches of science, technology and industry, ranging from
biological, medical and chemical systems, to common practice of thermal engineering
Anthropogenic air pollution constitutes of many substances. Greenhouse gases absorb and
reflect some of the infrared parts of solar radiation reflected from the earth surface thus
causing the troposphere to be warmer. Among others, these substances are carbone-dioxide,
water vapour, hydrogen oxides, nitrogen-oxides and methane. Beyond causing warming,
most of these gases are poisonous to the Earth’s biosphere. Besides greenhouse gases, there
are a few more poisonous substances which have anthropogenic sources.
Rapid development of optoelectronic devices and laser techniques poses an important
task of creating and
studying, from one side, the structures capable of effectively converting, modulating,
and recording optical data in a wide range of radiation energy densities and
frequencies, from another side, the new schemes and approaches capable to activate and
simulate the modern features. It is well known that nonlinear optical phenomena and
nonlinear optical materials have the promising place to resolve these complicated
The atmosphere is the layer of air surrounding the earth and its structure below 50 km
is most important in determining pollution levels. In this sense, greenhouse effect and
climate change are evoking a special interest recently since they are considered to be
human hazards. Greenhouse effect is produced by infrared radiations, imprisoned
between the earth and the thin layer of greenhouse gases, which get reflected and heat
up the earth’s surface.
This Report was developed under the auspices of Program Area
Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and
Measurements (NCRP), the committee that is concerned with operational
radiation safety. The Report addresses the structural shielding
design for medical x-ray imaging facilities and supersedes the
parts that address such facilities in NCRP Report No. 49, Structural
Shielding Design and Evaluation for Medical Use of X Rays and
Gamma Rays of Energies Up to 10 MeV, which was issued in