Radiation sources

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  • The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) published Report No. 48, Radiation Protection for Medical and Allied Health Personnel in 1976. Many changes in medical practice and procedures involving ionizing radiation have occurred in the intervening 13 years. As a result, the Council determined to prepare this new report to supersede NCRP Report No. 48. The primary objective of this new report is to update the material to include new radiation sources used in medicine.

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  • Measurement of background radiation for epidemiologic purposes involves the use of technics capable of detecting geographic variation in exposure to external and internal natural sources of radioactivity at low levels. Methods for determining dose over a period of time are necessary and instruments are being developed. The methodology of this problem is analyzed.

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  • The book contains fundamentals of solar radiation, its ecological impacts, applications, especially in agriculture, architecture, thermal and electric energy. Chapters are written by numerous experienced scientists in the field from various parts of the world. Apart from chapter one which is the introductory chapter of the book, that gives a general topic insight of the book, there are 24 more chapters that cover various fields of solar radiation.

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  • Cerium, an element in the lanthanide series, has a number of radioactive isotopes. Several of these are produced in abundance in nuclear fission reactions associated with nuclear industry operations or detonation of nuclear devices. This report summarizes our present knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines.

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  • The NCRP has long mcog&ed the need for a clear assessment of the magnitude of doses from various souroes of radiation to which the population of the U.S. is ocpo9ed. In anticipation of the need to gather data for input into this process five as&sament committees, each adhing a different source category, wem established, first in 1971 and then reestablished in 1986. NCRP reports assessing exposum from natural background, consumer products, and nuclear power gene ation have recently been published (NCRP, 1987% 1987b. 1987~)...

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  • This report of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) , successor to the National Committee on Radiation Protection and hleasurements, is concerned with the spccification of sealed sources of nuclides which emit gamma rays-sources useful in brachytherapy. The report resulted from the Council's belief that a single well-defined method for specifying the radionuclide in an encapsulated source would be advantageous for both the users and the suppliers of such sources....

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  • In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora.

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  • The high tech bubble was in°ated by myths of astronomical Internet tra±c growth rates. Yet although these myths were false, Internet tra±c was increasing very rapidly, close to doubling each year since 1997. Moreover, it continues growing close to this rate. This rapid growth re°ects a poorly understood combination of many feedback loops operating on di®erent time scales. Evidence about past and current growth rates and their sources is presented, together with speculations about the future.

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  • The nation’s six synchrotron light sources, five neutron sources, and highfield magnet laboratory are uniquely valuable resources that contribute to the development of new products and processes, create jobs, enhance the skill level of the U.S. scientific community, and increase U.S. competitiveness. Because of the high cost of building and operating these facilities,1 only a limited number can be funded and they must be made widely available.

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  • Introduction to LEDs: How LEDs work + some points. Comparison with other sources of light. LED in communication. Blue &White LED technologies. How they are made? Their application? Brief about blue laser? Stands for light emitting diode. Semiconductor device: p-n junction forward-biased.current emits incoherent narrow spectrum light (due to recombination in transition region near the junction.) Color of the emitted light depends on the chemical of the semiconducting material used. (Near-ultraviolet, visible or infrared.)...

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  • First off, it’s all about the lumens. Lumens are the visible light given off by a source, and they are the ultimate goal. Wattage has often been confused with lumens, thanks to how incandescent bulbs are rated (everyone knows that a 60W bulb is not as bright as a 100W one), but more efficient lighting technologies have greatly changed the relationship between wattage (essentially power usage) and lumens (light output). For example, an incandescent might operate at about 12-15 lumens-per-watt (lm/W), while an LED bulb will be in the range of 40-50, a much greater luminous efficacy...

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  • In section 2, there is an illustration of the source and types of industrial contaminants in many parts of the world. It is essential to understand the characteristic of industrial discharge in order to have an idea for ways to reduce or remove the contaminants for a sustainable tomorrow. It is required to understand the impacts of industrial waste to the environment (freshwater, seawater, land) in order to design highly efficient treatment and developing effective remedial methods.

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  • Science of brachytherapy is currently increasing in the field of cancer therapy. By virtue of the development of computer assisted technologies, we can reap the benefits of accurate radiotherapies more than ever, which enabled precise irradiation to a target safely avoiding unnecessary involvement of the surrounding normal tissue. Unlike teleradiotherapy provided by X-ray linear accelerator, brachytherapy utilizes radiation source placing inside or close to the target.

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  • Several figures in this primer show the cumulative percent change in private health insurance or health insurance premiums (Figures 11, 15, and 20). These cumulative increases may vary from figure to figure because different years are used, the data sources differ, and what is being measured varies.

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  • This manual is written to help students learn as much as possible about radiation and some of the concepts key to nuclear and particle physics. This manual in particular is written to guide you through a laboratory experiment set-up.

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  • The pelvic examination begins with a visual inspection of the external geni- talia using the assistance of a good light source. Although skin cancer is rare in this region, it is often diagnosed late. Vulvar cancer can be hyperpig- mented, erythematous, or hypopigmented, and any such lesions require care- ful evaluation and often biopsy (see Chapter 17). Lichen sclerosus is a relatively common condition in which the vulvar skin may appear like parch- ment. It is more common in postmenopausal women, but occurs in all ages, and can be associated with cancer. ...

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  • The major sources of carbon monoxide pollution are automotive exhaust and emissions from large industrial combustion sources such as electrical power plants. Because these sources produce many contaminants in addition to carbon monoxide -- such as fine particles and nitrogen oxides -- it is often difficult to isolate the health effects of ambient carbon monoxide from those of other pollutants. In addition to carbon monoxide generated outside, there are also important indoor sources of the pollutant.

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  • Light is just one portion of the various electromagnetic waves flying through space. The electromagnetic spectrum covers an extremely broad range, from radio waves with wavelengths of a meter or more, down to x-rays with wavelengths of less than a billionth of a meter. Optical radiation lies between radio waves and x-rays on the spectrum, exhibiting a unique mix of ray, wave, and quantum properties.

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  • The NCRP has long recognized the need for a clear assessment of the magnitude of doses from various sources of radiation to which the population of the U.S. is exposed. In anticipation of the need to gather data for input into this process, five assessment committees, each addressing a different source category, were established. NCRP reports assessing exposures from natural background, consumer products, nuclear power generation, and diagnostic medical radiation have been published (NCRP, 1987a,b,c,d, NCRP, 1989)....

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  • Benzene is a colourless, liquid, flammable, aromatic hydrocarbon that is a component of petrol, or may result from incomplete combustion of fuels. Benzene, a natural component of crude oil, is emitted from a range of industrial and combustion sources. The major source of benzene is motor vehicles—both vehicle exhaust (contributing approximately 75% to 80% of emissions) and evaporative emissions (including evaporation losses from motor vehicles and evaporation losses during the handling, distribution and storage of petrol).

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