Radioactive materials

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  • In 1961 the NCRP issued NCRP Report No. 28, A Manual of Radioactivity Procedures, which was published as the National Bureau of Standards Handbook 80. The report came to be one of the definitive works in the area of radioactivity measurements. As the development of new techniques, procedures, and equipment made parts of the Report obsolescent, the NCRP recognized the need to update and extend the document.

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  • Nuclear power approximately supplies a sixth of the world's electricity and considers as the major source of "carbon-free" energy today. With growing concerns aboutglobal warming, it is not surprising that governments and power providers around the world are considering building a substantial number of additional nuclear power plants. These plants have demonstrated remarkable reliability and efficiency with the help of extensive research work and sharing operational practical experience.

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  • Gamma rays were discovered by Villard more than a hundred years ago. Rutherford gave the name -rays to the electrically neutral radiation emitted by the naturally occurring radioactive materials. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, photons, which arises due to energy changes in the nucleus. It does not appear as an independent form of radiation, but it follows  and β decay, in those cases when the newly created core of the offspring is found in the excited state.

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  • Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies Handbook .Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies Handbook Editor-in-Chief Chang Ho Oh, Ph.D. CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. .Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hazardous and radioactive waste treatment technologies handbook / Chang H. Oh [editor] p. cm. (The mechanical engineering handbook series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-9586-0 (alk. paper) 1. Hazardous wastes--Purification--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2.

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  • AT THE transition to the new millennium the future of nuclear energy looks brighter. Nuclear power plants worldwide have operated safely. Applications for extension of reactor operating licenses in the U.S. are in place and construction is continuing abroad. Uses of isotopes and radiation in applications to medicine, research, and industry continue to assure human benefit. Research and development are active in the areas of controlled fusion, accelerator uses, isotope separation, space exploration, and excess weapons material disposition.

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  • Due to economic growth and increasing population, energy demands must be satisfied in a sustainable manner assuring inherent safety, efficiency and minimized environmental impact. Nuclear power has long posed a dilemma for environmentalists and scientists alike. On the one hand it is seen as a cheap, clean energy source whilst on the other some have concerns over its ability to dispose of radioactive waste.

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  • In order to predict heavy particle radioactivities in 1980 and to arrive at a unified approach of cluster decay modes, alpha disintegration, and cold fission, before the first experimental confirmation3 in 1984, we developed and used a series of fission theories in a wide range of mass asymmetry, namely: fragmentation theory, numerical (NuSAF) and analytical (ASAF) superasymmetric fission models, and a semiempirical formula for a-decay (see the multiauthored book * and the references therein).

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  • The advancements of the research on Mobile Robots with high degree of autonomy is possible, on one hand, due to its broad perspective of applications and, on other hand, due to the development and reduction of costs on computer, electronic and mechanic systems. Together with the research in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, this scenario currently enables the proposition of ambitious and complex robotic projects.

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  • The serious challenge facing the world today, in obtaining enough energy for growing population and in controlling the carbon emission caused by fossil fuel use, calls for nuclear energy as an alternative power source. This book presents research work and technical experience from several power plants and research institutions around the world from practical prospective.

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  • Robotic Mechanisms During the last few decades, robot manipulators have been used primarily for repetitive operations and in hazardous environments. Typical applications include parts loading and unloading, radioactive material handling, space and undersea exploration, spot welding, spray painting, sealant application, and some simple component assembly. Recently, there is an increasing interest in making robots more intelligent and more user friendly. Thus, medical-surgery robots, household service robots, microrobots, and others are becoming available.

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  • Ionic methods of separation have been used since the industrial revolution in Europe to reduce hardness of water. In the mid-nineteenth century, British researchers treated various clays with ammonium sulfate or carbonate in solution to release calcium. In the early twentieth century, zeolite columns were used to remove interfering calcium and magnesium ions from solutions to permit determination of sulfate. Ionic separation procedures were used in the Manhattan project to purify and concentrate radioactive materials needed to make atom bombs.

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  • During the last few decades, robot manipulators have been used primarily for repetitive operations and in hazardous environments. Typical applications include parts loading and unloading, radioactive material handling, space and undersea exploration, spot welding, spray painting, sealant application, and some simple component assembly.

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  • Few members of the general public are fully aware of the extent to which the atomic age affects their everyday lives. For many, bombs and power plants are their only associations with the term. The uses and benefits of radioactive isotopes in medicine, agriculture, industry, and science are widespread, however, allowing us to perform many tasks more accurately, more simply, less expensively, and more quickly than would otherwise be possible. In many cases, biological tracers for example, there is no alternative.

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  • This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law as indicated in a notice appearing later in this work. This electronic representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for non-commercial use only. Unauthorized posting of RAND electronic documents to a non-RAND website is prohibited. RAND electronic documents are protected under copyright law. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of our research documents for commercial use. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please see RAND Permissions....

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  • Over the past two decades the NCRP has carried out several studies and issued two reports on problems associated with a possible nuclear attack on this country. In each of these reports, any questions centering primarily about a nuclear reactor accident were avoided. The Council noted, however, the increasing interest in the potential of protective actions for alleviating some of the effects of the release of radioactive materials that might ensue in the event of a reactor accident.

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  • Diagnostic nuclear medicine began more than 50 years ago and has evolved into a major medical specialty. Its practitioners use low activity levels of radioactive materials in a safe way to gain information about health and disease. Small amounts of radioactive materials, known as radiopharmaceuticals, are intro- duced into the body by injection, swallowing, or inhalation. Different radiopharmaceuticals are used to study different parts of the body. These agents emit photons that can be detected externally by special cameras.

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  • During my career, some 35 years, there has been a growing realization that the goal of successful nuclear waste management and the final disposal of long-lived radionuclides can only be attained by a thorough understanding of the behavior of key, technogenic radionuclides in the environment. Within a nuclear reactor, these radionuclides are created by fission, neutron capture and subsequent beta-decay reactions on actinides, mainly 238 U, and by activation nuclear reactions.

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