The beginning of this book was university lecture notes and training material for process
engineers. Although it now is a lot more comprehensive, it has been our intention to
maintain a mixed academic and industrial approach to the various subjects. Our motivation
for writing this book has been the need for a text covering the full range from the underlying
physics to the process applications of radioisotope gauges. We could not deal with all
subjects in detail; however, we have included references to many excellent books and
articles where further details can be found....
Industrialization has become an important factor to the development of a country’s economy,
through the establishment of plants and factories. However, the waste or by-products
discharged from them are severely disastrous to the environment consists various kind of
contaminant which contaminate the surface water, ground water and soil. There are a number
of reasons the waste are not safely treated. One of the reasons is mainly due to the lacking of
highly efficient and economic treatment technology.
(BQ) Ebook Earth Evolution of a habitable world is described in the context of what we know about other planets and the cosmos at large, from the origin of the cosmos to the processes that shape planetary environments and from the origins of life to the inner workings of cells. Astronomy, earth science, planetary science and astrobiology are integrated to give students the whole picture of how the Earth has come to its present state and an understanding of the relationship between key ideas in different fields.
Science of brachytherapy is currently increasing in the field of cancer therapy. By
virtue of the development of computer assisted technologies, we can reap the benefits
of accurate radiotherapies more than ever, which enabled precise irradiation to a
target safely avoiding unnecessary involvement of the surrounding normal tissue.
Unlike teleradiotherapy provided by X-ray linear accelerator, brachytherapy utilizes
radiation source placing inside or close to the target.
Nuclear Medicine is a fascinating application of nuclear physics. This wikibook is intended to support a basic introductory course in an early semester of an undergraduate program. It assumes that students have completed decent high school programs in maths and physics and are concurrently taking subjects in the medical sciences.
Economies of learning refer to decreasing average cost or increasing average
effectiveness, as a result of accumulating experience and know-how. The transition from old
to new processes may well cause the opposite effect; increasing average costs or decreasing
effectiveness as experience is lacking. Thus patients may have CPC detection performed and
regardless of the result proceed to prostate biopsy.
NASA’s budget for fiscal year 2003 included funds to begin the Nuclear Systems Initiative focused on
research into and development of enhanced capabilities in the general areas of spacecraft power and propulsion
The detection of specific DNA sequences provides the basis for detecting a wide variety of microbial and viral pathogens. Traditional methods for DNA sequencing, based on the radioisotopic and fluorescent detection, are labor and time consuming, and are, thus, not well suited for routine and rapid medical analyses, particularly for point-of-care tasks. Fast electrochemical detection of DNA sequences may greatly reduce the assay time, simplify its protocol and therefore can be used for on-site monitoring.
Mutant analysis by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme cleavage
(MAPREC) has been developed by Chumakov et al. for poliovirus to determine quantitatively the
presence of genomic changes in particular nucleotide sequences that lead to virulence phenotypes
of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV or live attenuated vaccine) . Afterwards, this RI
(radioisotope) MAPREC was developed to non RI – MAPREC by Japan Poliomyelitis Research
Institute in 1998 to compensate for some disadvantages of RI-MAPREC .