Random error

osing a Behavior to Measure Errors in Measuring Behavior Overview of Two Types of Measurement Errors: Bias and Random Error Errors Due to the Observer: Bias and Random Error Errors in Administering the Measure: Bias and Random Error Errors Due to the Participant: Bias and Random Error Summary of the Three Sources and Two Types of Measurement Error Reliability: The (Relative) Absence of Random Error The Importance of Being Reliable: Reliability as a Prerequisite to Validity Using Test–Retest Reliability to Assess Overall Reliability: To What Degree Is a Measure “Random Error Free” ? Id...
744p chipbia 15072012 231 72 Download

Soft error is a great concern for microelectronics circuits today. With the advanced development i n CMOS technologies, VLSI circuits are becoming more sensitive to external noise sources, especially radiation particle strikes, which are the cause of soft error. Soft errors are random and do not cause the permanent failure. However, it causes the corruption of stored information, which could turn to the failure in functionality of the circuits.
89p conchokon 24092012 26 8 Download

I have been associated with uncertainty calculations for quite sometime. Asia Metrology Program (APMP) took interest in unification of expressing the measurement results along with uncertainty. In those days the uncertainty components were divided according to source of errors. The errors were named as random and systematic errors. Hence components of uncertainty were named random uncertainty and systematic uncertainty. Around 1980, BIPM took initiative by circulating questioners to the countries who were members of Metre Convention.
342p camchuong_1 04122012 21 3 Download

Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) have been applied with considerable success to a number of natural language processing tasks. However, these tasks have mostly involved very small label sets. When deployed on tasks with larger label sets, the requirements for computational resources mean that training becomes intractable. This paper describes a method for training CRFs on such tasks, using error correcting output codes (ECOC). A number of CRFs are independently trained on the separate binary labelling tasks of distinguishing between a subset of the labels and its complement. ...
8p bunbo_1 17042013 18 3 Download

Directed Random Testing bool var35 = Collections.replaceAll(var20, var23, var28); java.lang.Object var36 = var18.put(1L, 10L); int var37 = Arrays.binarySearch(var4, var23); assert var37 == 3; Arrays.fill(var1, var3, var37, 1); BitSet var38 = new BitSet(var37); Comparator var39 = Collections.reverseOrder(); PriorityQueue var40 = new PriorityQueue(var37, var39); TreeSet var41 = new TreeSet(var39); bool var42 = var41.isEmpty(); TreeSet var43 = (TreeSet)var41.clone(); assert var43.size() == var41.size(); char[] var44 = new char[] { }; Set var76 = Collections.
72p quangdat88 17012013 21 2 Download

Finding allowable places in words to insert hyphens is an important practical problem. The algorithm that is used most often nowadays has remained essentially unchanged for 25 years. This method is the TEX hyphenation algorithm of Knuth and Liang. We present here a hyphenation method that is clearly more accurate. The new method is an application of conditional random ﬁelds. We create new training sets for English and Dutch from the CELEX European lexical resource, and achieve error rates for English of less than 0.1% for correctly allowed hyphens, and less than 0.01% for Dutch. ...
9p hongdo_1 12042013 12 1 Download

This paper proposes a framework for training Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to optimize multivariate evaluation measures, including nonlinear measures such as Fscore. Our proposed framework is derived from an error minimization approach that provides a simple solution for directly optimizing any evaluation measure. Speciﬁcally focusing on sequential segmentation tasks, i.e. text chunking and named entity recognition, we introduce a loss function that closely reﬂects the target evaluation measure for these tasks, namely, segmentation Fscore. ...
8p hongvang_1 16042013 22 1 Download

This paper presents a conditional random ﬁeldbased approach for identifying speakerproduced disﬂuencies (i.e. if and where they occur) in spontaneous speech transcripts. We emphasize false start regions, which are often missed in current disﬂuency identiﬁcation approaches as they lack lexical or structural similarity to the speech immediately following. We ﬁnd that combining lexical, syntactic, and language modelrelated features with the output of a stateoftheart disﬂuency identiﬁcation system improves overall wordlevel identiﬁcation of these and other errors. ...
9p bunthai_1 06052013 17 1 Download

Signal processing plays a key role in the optimization of disc capacity together with system margins of the optical drive. For the new format, new modulation codes have been designed for the rewritable version (paritypreserving code) and the readonly version (combicode). For bitdetection in the rewritable format, a nonrecursive algorithm with PRMLlike performance is devised. Finally, a new ECC code, called the picket code, was designed in order to cope with multiple long burst errors, on top of the usual random errors of the channel...
124p huemanvdoc 23112009 94 37 Download

Giải thuật Viterbi biểu diễn giải mã Maximum likelihood. • Nó tìm 1 đường có sự tương quan lớn nhất hoặc khoảng cách nhỏ nhất. – Là 1 quá trình lặp. – Trong mỗi bước tính toán, nó chỉ giữ đường nào có khoảng cách nhỏ nhất, gọi là đường sống (the survivor).Mã chập (Convolutional codes) thích hợp cho kênh truyền không nhớ (memoryless channels) vì các lỗi là ngẫu nhiên (random error events).
45p minhnguyenus 28032012 65 19 Download

An ideal way to run this experiment would be to run all the 4x3=12 wafers in the same furnace run. That would eliminate the nuisance furnace factor completely. However, regular production wafers have furnace priority, and only a few experimental wafers are allowed into any furnace run at the same time. NonBlocked method A nonblocked way to run this experiment would be to run each of the twelve experimental wafers, in random order, one per furnace run.
378p lulanphuong 17032012 61 18 Download

Measurements and Tolerances There are excellent books on measurements, listed below, Thus only special topics pertinent to arrays will be discussed herein. These are: measurement of low sidelobe antennas; array diagnostics; and scan impedance simulators. Because array performance is affected by random errors, tolerances are also discussed in this chapter. A. E. Bailey, Microwave Measurement, IEE/Peregrinus, 1985. 1988. G. H. Bryant, PrincipZe~ of Microwave Measurement, IEE/Peregrinus, G. E. Evans, Antenna Measurement techniques, Artech House, 1990.
20p huggoo 23082010 68 12 Download

Similarly, if you come to a card which is BLACK, put it faceup on your BLACK pile. Think BLACK and select a random facedown card. Put this facedown card in a pile in front of your BLACK pile. Go through this procedure until you run out of faceup cards. You now have the following: a RED pile and in front of that a pile containing the same number of facedown cards you selected while thinking RED. You also have a BLACK pile in front of which is a pile of random cards you selected while thinking BLACK. Interestingly your thoughts...
703p dacotaikhoan 25042013 29 7 Download

Systematic and random error Accuracy vs precision Significant figures Average and standard deviations ENVI 15  Analytical Chemistry Lecture 2 Quality Assurance Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Review Harris Chapter 5 A program to produce high quality data with known uncertainty. ENVI 15  Analytical Chemistry Lecture 2 .
11p doilan 26012013 27 5 Download

This is the eight book of examples from the Theory of Probability. In general, this topic is not my favourite, but thanks to my former colleague, Ole Jørsboe, I somehow managed to get an idea of what it is all about. We shall, however, in this volume deal with some topics which are closer to my own mathematical fields. The prerequisites for the topics can e.g. be found in the Ventus: Calculus 2 series and the Ventus: Complex Function Theory series, and all the previous Ventus: Probability c1c6. Unfortunately errors cannot be avoided in a first edition of a work of this type.
109p sn_buon 29112012 27 4 Download

Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học thế giới đề tài: Computing approximate standard errors for genetic parameters derived from random regression models ﬁtted by average information REML
8p toshiba19 08112011 17 2 Download

Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Best linear unbiased prediction when error vector is correlated with other random vectors in the model
6p toshiba21 16112011 16 2 Download

In the article proposed an effective method estimating transfer function model of controlled plant including deadtime delay, based on stochatstic time series of inputoutput signals. The model structure is modified with parameters optimized until the model error becomes "whitenoise" series that with inough smal autocorrelation function.
7p tuanlocmuido 19122012 24 2 Download

Chapter 6 – Sampling and estimation. This chapter include objectives: Define simple random sampling, define and interpret sampling error, distinguish between timeseries and crosssectional data; state the central limit theorem and describe its importance, distinguish between a point estimate and a confidence interval estimate of a population parameter,...
27p allbymyself_10 03032016 23 1 Download

This lecture is an overview of the fundamental tools and techniques for numeric computation. For some, numerics are everything. For many, numerics are occasionally essential. Here, we present the basic problems of size, precision, truncation, and error handling in standard mathematical functions. We present multidimensional matrices and the standard library complex numbers.
41p tangtuy15 30062016 1 1 Download