Rates of evolution

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  • The main focus of this book is the presentation of the “inertial” view of population growth. This view provides a rather simple model for complex population dynamics, and is achieved at the level of the single species, without invoking species interactions. An important part of our account is the maternal effect. Investment of mothers in the quality of their daughters makes the rate of reproduction of the current generation depend not only on the current environment but also on the environment experienced by the preceding generation....

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Seven-year follow-up of infliximab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with severe long-standing refractory disease: attrition rate and evolution of disease activity...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Speciation burst hypothesis : an explanation for the variation in rates of phenotypic evolution

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  • How different levels of genetic variance affect the rate of evolutionary change within populations has also been intensively studied. Such changes were originally studied using phenotypic markers: variation among individual plants in traits, such as leaf shape or flower color (Ward et al., 2008). Subsequently the detection of genetic variation has become more sensitive, firstly through the utilization of variation in enzymes (allozymes) and then through PCR-based marker systems allowing direct examination of DNA sequence variation.

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  • In this section we look at data concerning 10-year government bond yields. Although our main interest is the default risk, this presents only one channel through which fiscal policies can affect long-term yields. There are other channels operating through monetary-fiscal interaction, which should be reflected in the evolution of yields. Therefore we start our descriptive analysis in this section by looking at yields, forward rates and inflation expectations at a weekly frequency. Then we move to an analysis of interest rate swap spreads, at a weekly and daily frequency.

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  • The topic of policy formulation among interdependent economies has received much attention in the literature. China and Hong Kong are economically closely linked. Policy initiatives in one economy may influence the evolution of economics variables in the other. In the first essay a two-country model is used to illustrate the interdependence of these two economies. Not surprisingly, we found that the policy effects are asymmetric, due to differences in size. China’s economic policies have a big effect on Hong Kong, but the reverse is not true.

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  • Although technical advances have resulted in marked improvements in the ability to diag‐ nose and surgically treat primary and metastatic brain tumors, the incidence and mortality rates of these tumors is increasing. Particularly affected are young adults and the elderly. The present standard treatment modalities following surgical resection including cranial irradia‐ tion and systemic or local chemotherapy each have limited efficacy and serious adverse side effects.

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  • "International Business - Chapter 7: The international monetary system and the balance of payments" discuss the role of the international monetary system in promoting international trade and investment, explain the evolution and functioning of the gold standard, explain the evolution of the flexible exchange rate system

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  • This book is about the evolution of self-help movement organizations in the United States. The dramatic rise and ubiquity of self-help during the mid- to late twentieth century positions it high among other healthcare institutions such as drug rehabilitation, the health maintenance organization (HMO), and patient rights as an integral part of the landscape marking our daily lives.

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  • At that time, evolutionary biology was in eclipse. Many scientists thought that Lord Kelvin’s arguments about the rate of the earth’s cooling proved Darwin wrong (Kelvin 1862). Others recognized that Darwin’s theory of transmission by gemmules was inconsistent with his theory of natural selection (Richards 1987). Natural selection was not re-incorporated into biology until its underpinnings in population genetics were developed in the early to middle years of the 20th century (Fisher 1930).

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  • In recent years, it was realized that the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) communication systems seems to be inevitable in accelerated evolution of high data rates applications. The MIMO systems, have received considerable att ention of researchers and commercial companies due to their potential to dramatically increase the spectral effi ciency and simultaneously sending individual information to the corresponding users in wireless systems.

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  • Even as new species are evolving, however, others may become extinct. The rate at which species become extinct may be low in one lineage and high in another. It’s also possible for the rate of extinction to rise, only to drop again later. All of these processes can also unfold at the same time, and so the range of possible long-term patterns in evolution can be enormous. A lineage with a low rate of speciation may end up enormously diverse because its rate of extinction is even lower.

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  • In the short-run, however, substantial differences existed. During the First World War entertainment expenditure moved in opposite directions in France and Britain and remained stable in the US. During the great depression US real entertainment expenditure shrunk substantially, while European levels remained stable. The French expenditure level was substantially lower than in the other two countries, about a fifth in 1938 using exchange rates, although the difference is difficult to quantify because of devaluation of the franc and purchasing power parity issues.

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  • We approximate credit risk developments at the bank level by considering non- performing loans of each institution and rating changes at the individual security level. Importantly, our database allows us to identify not only the rating of these securities at the time of origination but also their evolution over time. We also analyze to what extent housing prices, securitization activity and lending may have asymmetric effects across institutions and geographically (at the regional level) by identifying the role of each of these factors.

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  • These daily movements in the Portuguese long-term interest rates could reflect a risk premium. The EC recommendation clearly signalled to markets that Portuguese public finances were facing difficulties. Therefore, markets might have attributed additional risk to the government debt, demanding a higher interest rate to hold the long-term bonds. At the same time, the risk of private bonds might have decreased relatively to government bonds, since this EC recommendation was not seen as directly damaging this segment of the market.

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  • As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee- based fi nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay- ments etc.).

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: Estimating rates and patterns of morphological evolution from phylogenies: lessons in limb lability from Australian Lerista lizards...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Evolution of Dengue Virus Type 3 Genotype III in Venezuela: Diversification, Rates and Population Dynamics

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  • Biodiversity forms patterns not just across space, but also across time. New species emerge, old ones become extinct; rates of diversification speed up and slow down. These long-term patterns in evolution get their start in the generation-to- generation processes of natural selection, genetic drift, and reproductive isolation. When a lineage of organisms evolves over a few million years, these processes can potentially produce a wide range of patterns (see ). Natural selec- tion may produce a significant change in a trait such as body size, for example.

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  • Traditional macroeconomic models without financial intermediation describe the transmission mechanism of monetary policy through a single (risk-free) interest rate. As indicated by Meltzer and Nelson 1 , the characterisation of the financial sector in such a simplified manner is likely to miss important elements in the macroeconomic adjustment mechanisms. A key aspect that is absent from the traditional framework is an account of how different interest rates embody time-varying risk premia.

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