Ratio control

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  • Automatic process control is concerned with maintaining process variables, temperatures, pressures, flows, compositions, and the like, at a desired operating value. As we shall see in the ensuing pages, processes are dynamic in nature. Changes are always occurring, and if actions are not taken, the important process variables— those related to safety, product quality, and production rates—will not achieve design conditions.

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  • Air Fuel Ratio Controle Metod

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  • A PLC or programmable controller is a computer based solid state device that controls industrial equipment and processes. Initially designed to perform the logic functions executed by relays, drum switches and mechanical timer/counters, it has been extended to analog control as well. A typical PLC system consists of a processor and an input/output system all mounted in a rack like system. The PLC system is a cost effective solution for applications with a high ratio of digital to analog points in a system.

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  • Learning objectives in this chapter: Explain why companies develop control systems for employees, summarize how to design a basic bureaucratic control system, describe the purposes for using budgets as a control device, define basic types of financial statements and financial ratios used as controls, list procedures for implementing effective control systems

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  • a. A proprietorship, or sole proprietorship, is a business owned by one individual. A partnership exists when two or more persons associate to conduct a business. In contrast, a corporation is a legal entity created by a state. The corporation is separate and distinct from its owners and managers. b. In a limited partnership, limited partners’ liabilities, investment returns and control are limited, while general partners have unlimited liability and control.

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  • Steven Bragg, CPA, CMA, CIA, CPIM, has been the chief financial officer or controller of four companies, as well as a consulting manager at Ernst & Young and auditor at Deloitte & Touche. He received a master’s degree in finance from Bentley College, an MBA from Babson College, and a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Maine. He has been the two-time president of the Colorado Mountain Club, is an avid alpine skier and mountain biker, and is a certified master diver. Mr. Bragg resides in Centennial, Colorado with his wife and two daughters.

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  • Scales concisely show how a theoretical construct has been empirically measured. Their reliability and validity ratios give a notion of the quality of the scale. Since most scales are developed by the respective authors and are therefore in a first version, they can be used as a basis

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  • Parametric representation of shapes, mechanical components modeling with 3D visualization techniques using object oriented programming, the well known golden ratio application on vertical and horizontal displacement investigations of the ground surface, spatial modeling and simulating of dynamic continuous fluid flow process, simulation model for waste-water treatment, an interaction of tilt and illumination conditions at flight simulation and errors in taxiing performance, plant layout optimal plot plan, atmospheric modeling for weather prediction, a stochastic search method that explores ...

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  • Scales concisely show how a theoretical construct has been empirically measured. Their reliability and validity ratios give a notion of the quality of the scale. Since most scales are developed by the respective authors and are therefore in a first version, they can be used as a basis for supplementation and further development.

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  • Having discussed individual components of industrial servo drives from an operation point of view and a mathematical descriptive point of view, the next step is to combine these components into a block diagram for the complete servo drive. The block diagram is a powerful method of system analysis. In the block diagram each component in a servo system can be described by the ratio of its output to input. Thus the output of one component is the input to the next component.

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  • An important purpose of the Financial Report is to help citizens and policymakers assess whether current fiscal policy is sustainable and, if it is not, the urgency and magnitude of policy reforms necessary to make it sustainable. A sustainable policy is one where the ratio of debt held by the public to GDP (the debt-to-GDP ratio) is stable in the long run. Sustainability concerns only whether long-run revenues and expenditures are in balance; it does not concern fairness or efficiency implications of the reforms necessary to achieve sustainability.

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  • In this paper we examine whether and how accounting information about a firm manifests in its cost of capital, despite the forces of diversification. We build a model that is consistent with the CAPM and explicitly allows for multiple securities whose cash flows are correlated. We demonstrate that the quality of accounting information can influence the cost of capital, both directly and indirectly. The direct effect occurs because higher quality disclosures affect the firm’s assessed covariances with other firms’ cash flows, which is non-diversifiable.

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  • An alternative, less stark view of the impact of regulation has banks holding capital buffers, or discretionary capital, above the regulatory minimum in order to avoid the costs associated with having to issue fresh equity at short notice (Ayuso et al., 2004, and Peura and Keppo, 2006). It follows that banks facing higher cost of issuing equity should be less levered. According to the buffer view, the cost of issuing equity is caused by asymmetric information (as in Myers and Majluf, 1984).

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  • The plan of the paper is as follows. Section 1 argues that very high government debt/GDP ratios will increase uncertainty about the future path of interest rates. This will reduce the degree of asset substitutability between short-dated and long-dated paper, impairing the effectiveness of changes to the policy rate and making the short-term/long-term mix of government debt sales a more effective instrument of macroeconomic policy (Section 2). But the long-term interest rate on government bonds also has fundamental implications for financial stability (Section 3).

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  • Wet deposition of nitrate and ammonium can be measured at the same time as sulphate and pH using a standard precipitation collector used by ECN (Sykes and Lane, 1996) and the acid deposition monitoring networks and is cost effective on this basis. It also allows an assessment of the ratio of oxidised (nitrate) to reduced nitrogen (ammonium). Acid deposition has been declining in recent years – by more than 50% over large areas of the UK between 1985 and 1999 (NEGTAP, 2001) – and detecting the anticipated recovery of soils and plant communities is...

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  • In many countries, medicines are provided free to all patients in the public sector. Where this is the case, price data are not reported. In countries where medicines are only provided free to some groups of patients (e.g. children, the elderly), data on the price paid by those who are required to pay for their medicines are collected. In such cases, the price is the full price paid, even if patients themselves only pay part of this price. As indicated in Box 1.1, in WHO/HAI methodology medicine prices are reported as median price ratios or MPRs, which express median local...

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  • The dataset constitutes an unbalanced panel of 174 countries over the period 1791-2009. 5 In constructing the dataset, we relied on various sources for series on debt, GDP, and debt-to- GDP ratios. These included statistical handbooks—for example, of the League of Nations and the United Nations—official government publications, and databases complied by researchers and international organizations. The HPDD aims to cover public debt at the general government level.

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  • Điều khiển nâng cao độ bám đường cho ô tô điện là một trong những vấn đề có ý nghĩa quyết định khi điều khiển lực kéo của ô tô điện. Để điều khiển độ bám đường, người ta tiến hành điều khiển tỷ số trượt của ô tô điện. Các điều khiển tỷ số trượt cơ bản tận dụng khả năng sinh momen một cách nhanh chóng và chính xác của động cơ điện lắp đặt trong ô tô.

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  • The price of a commodity, the economist makes us to believe is determined by the forces of demand and supply in a free economy. Even if we accept the economists’ view, what factors influence demand and supply behavior? Price? Yes, but not all the time, at least there are some other factors. In the securities market, whether the primary or the secondary market, the price of equity is significantly influenced by a number of factors which include book value of the firm, dividend per share, earnings per share, price earning ratio and dividend cover (Gompers, Ishii & Metrick, 2003).

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  • A nested case-control study was undertaken within a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, attended at two HIV referral centers, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Delay in initiating treatment for TB was defined as the period of time, in days, which was greater than the median value between the onset of cough and initiating treatment for TB. The study analyzed biological, clinical, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors as well as those related to HIV and TB infection, potentially associated to delay. The odds ratios were estimated with the respective confidence intervals and p-values....

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