Raw materials mark the beginning of a value-added chain. In times of increasing
globalization their availability is a precondition for prosperity,
productivity and development of a country’s economy. Raw materials have
always been needed for many purposes. Global demand had its origin in the
Bronze and Iron Ages and increased exponentially during the Industrial
Revolution in the 19th Century. Worldwide demand for raw materials rapidly
increased in the 20th Century, caused by the explosive growth of the world
population and global economic productivity.
China’s papermaking technology itself is relatively similar across establishments
because, until recently, the industry relied on a couple of domestic manufacturers
making nearly identical machines for each stage in the papermaking process (CTAPI
(1993)). The critical differences in the technology come from the use of two alternative
raw materials (wood and non-wood fibers) and from the production of either bleached or
unbleached papers. Both differences are important to understanding the industry’s
"Nonwoven fabrics" content presentation: Raw materials, classificaion of Nonwoven, production steps for different methods, types of webs and their forming techniques, nonwoven fabric bonding techniques,... Invite you to consult.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Anatomy and physiology in health and illness" presents the following contents: Intake of raw materials and elimination of waste (The respiratory system, introduction to nutrition, the digestive system,...), protection and survival (the skin, resistance and immunity, the joints,...).
The characteristic data, economic figures, general assessments and indications concerning
all the properties are not guaranteed and cannot be used for calculations, computations or
other operations to determine design, cost-effectiveness or profitability.
Readers must verify the technical data and economic figures with their own suppliers of
raw materials or parts, and other current technical and economic sources. Prototypes and
tests under operating conditions are essential.
The nature of the tire and rubber industry has changed over the last 30 to 40
years in that, like all other industries, it has come to recognize the value of
using renewable sources of raw materials, recycling materials whenever
possible, and examining the potential of reclaiming used materials for fresh
A text/reference regarding the structure and function of components used in perfume development and the process of developing perfumes. Covers gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and a host of other analytical techniques; the esthetics and techniques of perfume development; the manifold and ever-changing safety-related requirements of countries and customers; concerns about the environmental impact of materials and impurities which affect the perfumer's work.
Manufacturing is a vital activity for a society from a strategic point of view. It has a long
history in human civilizations and gives a society a definite edge over its competitors. A
manufacturing system can be viewed as an arrangement of tasks and processes, properly put
together, to transform a selected group of raw materials and semi-finished products to a set of
finished products. Historically, manufacturing activities have grown over centuries and their
evolution can be divided into three stages....
Concrete can be classified as composite material and that is a
combination of different components which improve their performance
In general case binder component which can be in hard crystalline or
amorphous state is considered as the matrix of composite material.
In concrete matrix phase the grains of aggregates (dispersed phase) are
The current book consists of eighteen chapters divided into three sections. Section I includes nine topics in characterization techniques and evaluation of advanced ceramics dealing with newly developed photothermal, ultrasonic and ion spattering techniques, the neutron irradiation and the properties of ceramics, the existence of a polytypic multi-structured boron carbide, the oxygen isotope exchange between gases and nanoscale oxides and the evaluation of perovskite structures ceramics for sensors and ultrasonic applications....
The book offers comprehensive coverage of the broad range of scientific knowledge in the fields of advances in induction and microwave heating of mineral and organic materials. Beginning with industry application in many areas of practical application to mineral materials and ending with raw materials of agriculture origin the authors, specialists in different scientific area, present their results in the two sections: Section 1-Induction and Microwave Heating of Mineral Materials, and Section 2-Microwave Heating of Organic Materials....
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a new form of a common element, is a
semiconductor that has come of age. Its scientific attractions include a
continuously adjustable band gap, a usable camer lifetime and diffusion
length, efficient optical transitions, and the capability of employing either nor
Furthermore, it can be fabricated very easily as a thin film by a technology
that not only inherently escapes the expenst: of crystal perfection but also
requires significantly smaller amounts of raw materials....
Industry in Jepara comprises a complex network of relationships and flexible subcontracting. The
first aim of this survey was therefore to investigate how these relationships are structured, and
how production is organised and linked to the different market segments, including the sources
of the wood. In addition, we sought to record and quantify these relationships to understand the
contribution of a unit of raw material to the employment, education, and social wealth of people
in the system7
Although phosphate rock and potash are used as raw
materials for a wide range of applications, the most
important use by far is the manufacture of mineral
The primary source of these minerals is geological ore
deposits formed through past sedimentary or igneous
activities. In the case of potash, concentrated brines
are also a significant source.
This chapter provides a brief overview of the major
activities involved in the mining, handling and benefi-
ciation of phosphate rock and potash ore....
The formation of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
(PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), known collectively as dioxins, is a
recognized concern for cement manufacturing. Dioxins have the potential to form if
chlorine is present in the input fuel or raw materials. Formation can be repressed,
however, by the high temperatures and long residence times that are standard in cement
kilns (Karstensen 2008).
Leading mining companies have taken up the chal-
lenge and are pushing beyond minimum legal
requirements through voluntary initiatives, to ensure
their continued “license-to-operate” from the com-
munity as well as increasing their competitive
advantage through continuous, voluntary improve-
ments in environmental performance.
As with all mining activities, the extraction and bene-
ficiation of phosphate rock and potash to produce
mineral fertilizer raw material has the potential to
cause environmental impacts.
Petroleum-based industrial products have gradually replaced products derived from biological materials. However, biologically based products are making a comeback--because of a threefold increase in farm productivity and new technologies.
Biobased Industrial Products envisions a biobased industrial future, where starch will be used to make biopolymers and vegetable oils will become a routine component in lubricants and detergents.