Problem 1.1a: For a reaction AB (rate expression: rA = kCA ) , taking place in an isothermal tubular
reactor, starting with the mass balance equation and assuming plug flow, derive an expression for calculating
the reactor volume in terms of the molar flow rate of reactant ‘A’.
One of the main missions of the Abdus Salam International Centre for
Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy, founded in 1964, is to foster the growth
of advanced studies and scientific research in developing countries. To this
end, the Centre organizes a number of schools and workshops in a variety of
physical and mathematical disciplines.
The science of catalytic reaction engineering studies the catalyst and the catalytic process in the laboratory in order to predict how they will perform in production-scale reactors. Surprises are to be avoided in the scaleup of industrial processes. The laboratory results must account for flow, heat and mass transfer influences on reaction rate to be useful for scaleup. Calculated performance based on these results must also be useful to maximization of profit and safety and minimization of pollution.
A method has been developed to predict the effects of mutations in the p53
cancer suppressor gene. The new method uses novel parameters combined
with previously established parameters. The most important parameter is
the stability measure of the mutated structure calculated using molecular
The earthquake motion is assigned
classified by Japan's land area is classified into three categories according to level
seismic risk and adjust the seismic motion by using the regional adjustment factor of 1.0, 0.85
and 0.7 depending on the classification of the area.
Meanwhile, the studies to calculate seismic waveforms unique to the target area of seismic
design has been conducted in recent years.
When analyzing kinetic data or designing a chemical reactor, it is important
to state clearly the definitions of reaction rate, conversion, yield, and selectivity.
For a homogeneous reaction, the reaction rate is defined either as the
amount of product formed or the amount of reactant consumed per unit
volume of the gas or liquid phase per unit time. We generally use moles
(g mol, kg mol, or lb mol) rather than mass to define the rate, since
this simplifies the material balance calculations.
The basic properties of zeolites were studied by using quantum-chemical calculations. The obtained results have demonstrated that the basicity of zeolites in the forms of alkali cations (Li, Na or K) is increased with increasing cation radius. While the Si/Al ratio in the framework increases, the basicity of zeolites decreases. The application of adsorption method using acidic gases (CO2) for determining basicity may be suitable for solid bases without exhanged ion, but not for zeolites.
(BQ) Part 1 book "World of Chemistry" presents the following contents: Chemistry - An introduction, matter, chemical foundations - Elements, atoms and ions, nomenclature, measurements and calculations, chemical composition, modern atomic theory, chemical bonding,...
Much faster alkylation of enolate anions can often be achieved in dimethylformamide
(DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) than
in the usual protic solvents. The presence of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA)
or a triamine or tetramine can also enhance the rate of alkylation. This is thought to
be because of the fact that these solvents or additives solvate the cation, but not the
enolate, thereby separating the cation–enolate ion pair. This leaves a relatively free
enolate ion, which would be expected to be a more reactive nucleophile than the ion
There is growing recognition among academics and practitioners that the risk
and return characteristics of human capital—such as wage and salary profiles—
should be taken into account when building portfolios for individual investors.
Well-known financial scholars and commentators have pointed out the importance
of including the magnitude of human capital, its volatility, and its correlation with
other assets into a personal risk management perspective.2 Yet, Benartzi (2001)
showed that many investors invest heavily in the stock of the company they work
It is necessary for concrete structure with mass section to have a rational crack control plan based on analysis of thermal stress from hydration heat. Because mass concrete can cause crack to deteriorate durability of structure. So, this study reports two examples: one is a process to calculate an adiabatic temperature rise and a reaction rate for evaluate thermal stress.
The divalent metal transporter (DMT1) is a 12-transmem-brane domain protein responsible for dietary iron uptake in
the duodenum and iron acquisition from transferrin in
peripheral tissues. The transmembrane domain 4 (TM4)
of DMT1 has been shown to be crucial for its biological
function. Here we report the 3D structure and topology of
the DMT1-TM4 peptide by NMR spectroscopy with
simulated annealing calculations in membrane-mimetic
environments, e.g. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and SDS micelles.
Gomesin is the ﬁrst peptide isolated from spider exhibiting antimicrobial activities. This highly cationic peptide is composed of 18 amino-acid residues including four cysteines forming two disulﬁde linkages. The solution structure of gomesin has been determined using proton two-dimensional NMR (2D-NMR) and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. The global fold of gomesin consists in a wellresolved two-stranded antiparallel b sheet connected by a noncanonical b turn.
The gene encoding a subtilisin-like serine proteinase in the
psychrotrophic Vibriosp. PA44 has been successfully
cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli.The
gene is 1593 basepairs and encodes a precursor protein of
530 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass
of 55.7 kDa. The enzyme is isolated, however, as an active
40.6-kDa proteinase, without a 139amino acid residue
Volunteers Are a Valuable Financial Resource. A
volunteer’s time is an important resource for many charities
and congregations, especially those that do not have
the money to hire labor to carry out certain tasks. Volunteer
time is comparable to a monetary donation. Independent
Sector, a national advocate for the nonprofit sector,
computes annually an equivalent average hourly wage
for a volunteer’s time. The calculation is derived from
the average hourly wage of nonagricultural workers plus
12 percent for fringe benefits. By this calculation, the
typical 2002 volunteer value was $16.
The article deals with a research on the design and manufacturing of a dynamic balancing machine, using dynamic load sensors and optical one, for calculating the unbalanced mass in thick rotating part on two choosen correction planes. Dynamic load sensors attached to the bearing supports of the machine help us determine the reaction forces generated by the unbalanced mass of the rotor. These load signals are filtered and digitized at a sampling rate which is synchronous to the rotor via an optical sensors.
If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy.
20.1 20.2 Fundamentals of Robot Dynamic Modeling
Basic Ideas • Robot Geometry • Equations of Dynamics
Recursive Formulation of Robot Dynamics
Velocities and Accelerations of Robot Links • Elimination of Reactions — Minimization of Dynamic Model Form • Calculation of Direct and Inverse Dynamics
20.3 20.4 20.
The collective load is the basis for determining the
average speeds (2,387 min–1) and the average driving
speed (111 km/h). For each of the load cases the tooth
load acting on the pinion and the reaction loads from
the bearings have to be calculated both for forward and
backward motion (percentage times 50 % each).
In addition to these forces, the bearings are subjected
to loads due to the rotor weight, the unbalanced magnetic
pull, unbalanced loads and rail shocks. Of these
loads only the rotor weight, GL, is known; therefore, it
is multiplied by a supplementary factor fz = 1.
McKay, Donald. "Advection and Reactions" Multimedia Environmental Models Edited by Donald McKay Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,2001
Advection and Reactions
In Level I calculations, it is assumed that the chemical is conserved; i.e., it is neither destroyed by reactions nor conveyed out of the evaluative environment by ﬂows in phases such as air and water. These assumptions can be quite misleading when determining of the impact of a given discharge or emission of chemical.