Reaction mechanism: the description of the
step-by-step process by which reactants are
changed / converted into products. A nucleophile: an electron-rich species that can
form a covalent bond by donating 2 electrons to a
This first part is concerned with processes in which the kinetic behaviour of a
gaseous phase is rate-determining. The range of processes includes some which
are carried out in vacuum systems in which Knudsen or free evaporation occurs
from a condensed phase, to transport reactions where a chemical reaction
occurs between a solid and the gaseous phase to produce molecular species
containing some or all of the elements occurring in the solid phase.
Chemicals are part of our everyday lives. The hundreds of chemicals that
are manufactured by industrial processes influence what we do and how
we do it. This book offers descriptions and process details of the most popular
of those chemicals. The manufacture of chemicals involves many
facets of chemistry and engineering which are exhaustively treated in a
whole series of encyclopedic works, but it is not always simple to rapidly
grasp present status of knowledge from these sources.
Biofuels Engineering Process Technology has many contents: Harvesting Energy from Biochemical Reactions, Microbial Modeling of Biofuel Production, Biofuel Feedstocks, Ethanol Production, Biodiesel, Biological Production of Hydrogen, Microbial Fuel Cells.
Chemical reactions (abiotic reactions) are “classical” chemical reactions that
are not mediated by bacteria. They may include reaction processes such as
precipitation, hydrolysis, complexation, elimination, substitution etc. that
transform chemicals to other chemicals and potentially alter their phase/state
(solid, liquid, gas, dissolved).
Precipitation is the removal of ions from solution by the formation of insoluble
compounds, i.e. a solid-phase precipitate.
Hydrolysis is a process of chemical reaction by the addition of water.
Reactive liquid-liquid extraction of inorganic acids with amines and effect of solvating
diluents; Liquid extraction of tall oil from wastewaters of paper industry
• Supercritical fluid extraction of natural products; Enzymatic reactions in supercritical
CO2; Solubilities of liquids and solids in dense CO2 with entrainer
• Relation between the morphology and application properties of polymer catalysts and
• Study of the permeation and pervaporation of volatile organic substance (propan-1-ol,
• Observation of the competitive adsorption on Vycor glass membr...
On 23 March 1989, electrochemists M. Fleischmann and S. Pons claimed in a press conference at the University of Utah that they had achieved nuclear fusion in a tabletop chemistry experiment. Since then, evidence of fusion in what is now called low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research has grown only slightly stronger. Their hypothesis that a novel form of thermonuclear fusion was responsible for their experimental results is still unproved.
This book is an introduction to the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering.
The level of the presentation is what we consider appropriate for a
one-semester course. The text provides a balanced approach to the understanding
of: (1) both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and (2) both chemical
reaction engineering and chemical reactor engineering. We have emulated the teachings
of Prof. Michel Boudart in numerous sections of this text.
Untoward cutaneous responses to drugs can arise as a result of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms. A variety of adverse reactions result from mechanisms that do not involve an immunologic process. Drug reactions are a public health problem because of their frequent occurrence, occasional severity, and impact on the use of medications. The skin is among the organs most often affected by adverse drug reactions. The list of conditions that can be triggered by medications includes nearly all dermatologic diseases.
The science of catalytic reaction engineering studies the catalyst and the catalytic process in the laboratory in order to predict how they will perform in production-scale reactors. Surprises are to be avoided in the scaleup of industrial processes. The laboratory results must account for flow, heat and mass transfer influences on reaction rate to be useful for scaleup. Calculated performance based on these results must also be useful to maximization of profit and safety and minimization of pollution.
The unfolding process of the Blue Copper Protein (BCP)
rusticyanin (Rc) has been studied using a wide variety of
biochemical techniques. Fluorescence and CD spectroscop-ies reveal that the copper ion plays an essential role in sta-bilizing the protein and that the oxidized form is more
efficient than the reducedspecies in this respect. Theaddition
of guanidinium chloride to Rc samples produces aggrega-tion of the protein. Gel filtration chromatography and
glutaraldehyde cross-linking experiments confirm the for-mation of such aggregates. ...
Written by two of the foremost researchers in the ﬁeld, this book studies the local times of Markov processes by employing isomorphism theorems that relate them to certain associated Gaussian processes. It builds to this material through self-contained but harmonized “mini-courses” on the relevant ingredients, which assume only knowledge of measuretheoretic probability. The streamlined selection of topics creates an easy entrance for students and experts in related ﬁelds.
The RuvA, RuvB andRuvCproteins ofEscherichia coliact
together to process Holliday junctions formed during
recombination and DNA repair. RuvA has a well-de®ned
DNA binding surface that is sculptured speci®cally to
accommodate a Holliday junction and allow subsequent
loading of RuvB and RuvC. A negatively charged pin pro-jecting from the centre limits binding of linear duplexDNA.
The amino-acid sequences forming the pin are highly con-served.
The angiogenic process in the central nervous system (CNS) is basically
regulated by typical angiogenic signaling systems such as vascular endothe-lial growth factor (VEGF)–VEGF receptors and angiopoietin–Tie recep-tors. In addition to regular endothelial–pericyte interaction, the CNS
vasculature has a unique system of cell to cell communication between
endothelial cells and astrocytes which is known as the blood–brain barrier.
Despite the critical importance of protein ubiquitination in the regulation
of diverse cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms by which cells rec-ognize and transmit ubiquitin signals remain poorly understood. The
endosomal sorting machinery component hepatocyte growth factor-regu-lated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif
(UIM), which is believed to bind ubiquitinated membrane cargo proteins
and mediate their sorting to the lysosomal degradation pathway.
High-quality quantitative data generated under standardized conditions is
critical for understanding dynamic cellular processes. We report strategies
for error reduction, and algorithms for automated data processing and for
establishing the widely used techniques of immunoprecipitation and immu-noblotting as highly precise methods for the quantification of protein levels
Sol-gel process, a most usefully and effectively process, has a lot of advantage for preparation of a variety of advanced materials in various structures and sizes, via polymerization of metal and semiconductor hydroxides or via hydrolysis and condensation of their alkoxides, since in nucleophilic substitution (SN) reaction and nucleophilic addition (AN) reaction, the substituent with thelargest partial negative charge,is the nucleophile, and in SN reactions the substituent with the largest positive charge, + , is theleaving group or nucleofugal.
This is the third edition of a physical chemistry textbook designed for a two-semester
undergraduate physical chemistry course. The physical chemistry course is often the
ﬁrst opportunity that a student has to synthesize descriptive, theoretical, and mathe-
matical knowledge about chemistry into a coherent whole. To facilitate this synthe-
sis, the book is constructed about the idea of deﬁning a system, studying the states
in which it might be found, and analyzing the processes by which it can change
Characterizing the nature of heavy metal release reactions, sorption mechanisms,
and movement in the soil is the main topic of this book. Because soils are heterogeneous,
heavy metals in soils can be involved in a series of complex chemical and
biological interactions including oxidation-reduction, precipitation and dissolution,
volatilization, and surface and solution phase complexation. The heterogeneous
nature of the different soil constituents adds to the complexity of interactions of
heavy metal species with the soil environment....