Reaction mechanism: the description of the
step-by-step process by which reactants are
changed / converted into products. A nucleophile: an electron-rich species that can
form a covalent bond by donating 2 electrons to a
The fourth edition of Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering is a completely revised version of the worldwide best-selling book. It combines authoritative coverage of the principles of chemical reaction engineering with an unsurpassed focus on critical thinking and creative problem solving, employing open-ended questions and stressing the Socratic method. Clear and superbly organized, it integrates text, visuals, and computer simulations to help readers solve even the most challenging problems through reasoning, rather than by memorizing equations.
Named reactions still are an important element of organic chemistry, and a thorough
knowledge of such reactions is essential for the chemist. The scientific
content behind the name is of great importance, and the names themselves are
used as short expressions in order to ease spoken as well as written communication
in organic chemistry. Furthermore, named reactions are a perfect aid for
learning the principles of organic chemistry. This is not only true for the study
of chemistry as a major subject, but also when studying chemistry as a minor
The realm of aqueous organometallic catalysis incorporates many more reactions and catalysts than discussed in the preceeding chapters. However, these were not investigated in so much detail as, for instance, hydrogenation or hydroformylation; some of them are mentioned only here and there. An attempt is made to give a representative sample of these studies.
Problem 1.1a: For a reaction AB (rate expression: rA = kCA ) , taking place in an isothermal tubular
reactor, starting with the mass balance equation and assuming plug flow, derive an expression for calculating
the reactor volume in terms of the molar flow rate of reactant ‘A’.
Chemical reaction engineering (reaction engineering or reactor engineering) is a specialty in chemical engineering or industrial chemistry dealing with chemical reactors. Frequently the term relates specifically to catalytic reaction systems where either a homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst is present in the reactor.
This book is an introduction to the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering.
The level of the presentation is what we consider appropriate for a
one-semester course. The text provides a balanced approach to the understanding
of: (1) both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and (2) both chemical
reaction engineering and chemical reactor engineering. We have emulated the teachings
of Prof. Michel Boudart in numerous sections of this text.
On 23 March 1989, electrochemists M. Fleischmann and S. Pons claimed in a press conference at the University of Utah that they had achieved nuclear fusion in a tabletop chemistry experiment. Since then, evidence of fusion in what is now called low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research has grown only slightly stronger. Their hypothesis that a novel form of thermonuclear fusion was responsible for their experimental results is still unproved.
Chemical reaction engineering is concerned with the exploitation of chemical reactions on a commercial scale. It's goal is the successful design and operation of chemical reactors. This text emphasizes qualitative arguments, simple design methods, graphical procedures, and frequent comparison of capabilities of the major reactor types. Simple ideas are treated first, and are then extended to the more complex.
Đề tài được thực hiện nhằm so sánh kết quả phát hiện Monodon Baculovirus trên mẫu tôm giống và tôm thịt bằng 3 phương pháp nhuộm Malachite Green, nhuộm Haematoxylin và Eosin, Polymerase Chain Reaction. Đối với 30 mẫu tôm giống được phân tích bằng 3 phương pháp này thì có 8/30 mẫu (chiếm 27%) cho kết quả dương tính ở cả 3 phương pháp và 22/30 mẫu (chiếm 73%) có sự khác biệt ở 3 phương pháp
In this module, you will simulate a Synthesis Gas Production facility. This will introduce you to the powerful reaction modelling capability of HYSYS. The production of synthesis gas is an important step in the production of ammonia. Synthesis gas is comprised of hydrogen and nitrogen at a molar ratio of 3:1. The main role of the synthesis gas plant is to convert natural gas, primarily methane, into hydrogen.
This dissertation provides empirical evidence on the market reaction to earnings warnings and management’s motivation to issue earnings warnings. Earnings warnings are any earnings-related management voluntary disclosures made prior to the earnings announcement date.1 Firms use earnings warnings to provide timely information to their shareholders and investors as well as financial analysts regarding their expected current period performance prior to the earnings announcement date (Ip , McLean  and Stone ).
Delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms directed by drug-specific T cells are probably the most important mechanisms in the etiology of the most common drug eruptions—morbilliform exanthems—and also of rare and severe forms such as hypersensitivity syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Drugspecific T cells have been detected in these types of drug eruptions.
Contrary to what has been believed for years, the antigen is more often the native drug itself than its metabolites.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 57. Photosensitivity and Other Reactions to Light
Sunlight is the most visible and obvious source of comfort in the environment. The sun provides the beneficial effects of warmth and vitamin D synthesis; however, acute and chronic sun exposure also have pathologic consequences.
Few effects of sun exposure beyond those affecting the skin have been identified, but cutaneous exposure to sunlight is the major cause of human skin cancer and can exert immunosuppressive effects as well.
A photopolymer is a
polymer that changes its
properties when exposed
to light, often in the
ultraviolet frequency of
spectrum.Be bonds that link one polymer chain to another.
Can be formed by chemical reactions that are initiated
Change physical properties of photopolymers.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 56. Cutaneous Drug Reactions
CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTIONS: INTRODUCTION
Cutaneous reactions are among the most frequent adverse reactions to drugs. Every physician will see patients suffering from them. Most are benign, but a few can be life-threatening. Prompt recognition of severe reactions, drug withdrawal, and appropriate therapeutic interventions can minimize toxicity.
Untoward cutaneous responses to drugs can arise as a result of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms. A variety of adverse reactions result from mechanisms that do not involve an immunologic process. Drug reactions are a public health problem because of their frequent occurrence, occasional severity, and impact on the use of medications. The skin is among the organs most often affected by adverse drug reactions. The list of conditions that can be triggered by medications includes nearly all dermatologic diseases.
The science of catalytic reaction engineering studies the catalyst and the catalytic process in the laboratory in order to predict how they will perform in production-scale reactors. Surprises are to be avoided in the scaleup of industrial processes. The laboratory results must account for flow, heat and mass transfer influences on reaction rate to be useful for scaleup. Calculated performance based on these results must also be useful to maximization of profit and safety and minimization of pollution.