This book presents biologically inspired walking machines interacting with their physical environment. It describes how the designs of the morphology and the behavior control of walking machines can benefit from biological studies.
We report the results of experiments on economic decisions with two populations,
one of healthy elderly individuals (average age 82) and one of younger students (average
age 20). We examine confidence, decisions under uncertainty, differences between
willingness to pay and willingness to accept and the theory of mind (strategic thinking).
Our findings indicate that the older adults’ decision behavior is similar to that of young
adults, contrary to the notion that economic decision making is impaired with age.
Organic milk production systems rely on ecologically based practices that virtually prohibit the
use of antibiotics and hormones in the cow herd and the use of synthetic chemicals in the
production of cattle feed. Organic milk production systems also attempt to accommodate the
animals’ natural nutritional and behavioral requirements, for example ensuring that dairy cows
have access to pasture (Greene and Kremen).
The area of work that is, perhaps, most readily associated with work in the
realm beyond the rationality and control is research on emotions. A num-
ber of broad domains of scholarship can be seen as working to describe
the emotions or feelings experienced in learning situations. Research on
the brain, spurred by advancements in imaging technology, offers tanta-
lizing glimpses into the relationship between emotions, cognition, and
Another general domain in the study of emotions focuses on students’
feelings about themselves or their performance.
Global Scaling Up Handwashing is a Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) project focused on learning
how to apply innovative promotional approaches to behavior change to generate widespread and
sustained improvements in handwashing with soap at scale among women of reproductive age
(ages 15-49) and primary school-aged children (ages 5-9). The project is being implemented by
local and national governments with technical support from WSP. For more information, please visit
Based on the light-reactive behavior of siliceous sponges, their intriguing
quartz glass-based spicular system and the existence of a light-generating
luciferase [Mu ¨ller WEG et al.(2009) Cell Mol Life Sci66, 537–552], a pro-tein potentially involved in light reception has been identified, cloned and
recombinantly expressed from the demosponge Suberites domuncula.
This paper contributes to the literature on modeling the behavior
of the futures basis on several fronts.
Specifically, the paper investi-
gates nonlinearities in basis adjustment toward its equilibrium value
and proposes a novel approach to modeling the behavior of the basis
inspired by the prediction of the theoretical arguments mentioned
above. Using data for the S&P 500 and the FTSE 100 indices during
the post-crash period since 1988, the authors provide strong evidence of
nonlinear mean reversion in the futures basis for both indices consid-
Now, just having a reactive mindset is not, in itself, a bad thing. For instance, if we don’t react immediately to
putting our hand on a stove burner that has been turned on, we are going to get burnt! We use this reactive
mindset in many areas of life. A machine breaks down so we buy a new machine. Or sales drop so we launch a
new ad campaign. This is called event-driven behavior, which in itself is not a bad thing.
AT is recognized as the largest energy store of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG),
and more recently as an endocrine organ that regulates the secretion of adipokines, which
coordinate energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity and feeding behavior, not only in adults
but also in pediatric populations. Imbalance between visceral and subcutaneous AT is
capable of altering its physiology.
The factors that underlie the correlations between
sociality, the formation of strong social bonds, and fitness
outcomes are not fully understood, and there is some
uncertainty about the direction of the causal links between
these behaviors and fitness outcomes. However, a growing
body of evidence suggests that sociality affects physiology.
When rats (Rattus norvegicus) are housed in isolation, they
become hypervigilant and fearful of new stimuli (Cavigelli
and McClintock 2003; Cavigelli et al. 2006).