Receptors and cytokines

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  • Retroviral vectors have gained an increasing value in gene therapy because they stably deliver therapeutic genes to the host cell genome. These therapeutic genes are supposed to rectify consequences of inherited and acquired mutated genes in the host cell genome, or alter host cell function to cure diseases.

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  • Some larger non-Planned Parenthood facilities report that they could serve some of the patients who would be lost if Planned Parenthood clinics are excluded. However, they are generally at, or close to, the limits of their capacity and will not be able to expand much, if at all, due to other resource or staffing constraints. There is no evidence that they are prepared to sustain the very large caseload increases that would be required to fill the gaps left after Planned Parenthood affiliates are excluded.

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  • Technical approaches seek to reduce the emissions produced by road vehicles using the transport system by intervening with the vehicles being used and the fuels they are burning. By definition, these approaches address per unit emissions rather than the amount of activity causing the emissions. An exclusively technological approach may be insufficient to address the growth in emissions, for a number of reasons. First, growt h in activity continuously puts pressure on technology gains.

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  • Dairies are required to have an NMP to protect water quality from livestock nutrient discharges. Each basic function of the operation, production, collection, storage, transfer, treatment and field application is covered by the plan. The basis for nutrient management is sound agronomic use of solid and liquid manure. The Livestock Nutrient Management Program has inspectors that routinely inspect dairies for compliance with their nutrient management plans and preventing any discharges to surface and ground water....

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  • Drainage wil l be of crucial importance to the success of the development proposals for the Boa Plain. Flooding is caused by a combination of heavy local rainfall and overflow from the rivers that flow across the plain. A separate drainage strategy is needed for the northern sector between the two largest rivers, the Meme and Mokoko, where floods, particularly from the former, are much larger and last longer than elsewhere. In this sector a number of major drains leading west, by the most direct route to the sea, wil l be required — with some remodelling of the Mokoko...

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  • According to local inhabitants, garden productivity in the Upper Orinoco region was significantly below normal at the time of the study, a fact that can be attributed to the El Niño weather conditions in 1997–1998. Colleagues in the region conducted several aerial surveys, and provided convincing photographic evidence that many local gardens had been damaged by heavy flooding. During the field season, there were numerous reports of food shortages in the Yanomamö and Ye’kwana communities along the river.

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  • Two models were used to apportion human cases to sources on the basis of sequence types: the modified Hald model and the Island model (12,15). The modified Hald model combines the prevalence of each C. jejuni sequence type among the sources with the observed number of human isolates of that type by using a Bayesian framework (15). This model includes source-specific and type-specific factors, and accounts for variation in the estimated prevalence.

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  • The representation of drug treatment in America can affect society in several ways, including stigmatization. Elizabeth Hirschman (1992), in her study of cocaine use in films, argues that "motion pictures which focus upon addiction can serve as instructive, semiotically-rich texts for communicating cultural knowledge about addiction" (p. 428). This communication is not simply one-way, though; it exists as a continual feedback loop, with movies "both reflect[ing] and shape[ing] individual and societal values, attitudes, and behavior" (Wedding, 2000, p. 3).

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  • From the lowest-budget, most formally audacious or politically radical to the quirky, the offbeat, the cultish and the more conventional, the independent sector has thrived in American cinema in the past two decades, producing a body of work that stands out from the dominant Hollywood mainstream and that includes many of the most distinctive films to have appeared in the USA in recent years. It represents a challenge to Hollywood, although also one that has been embraced by the commercial mainstream to a substantial extent.

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  • Gaps in knowledge were detected in the course of this review. These are summarized in the following section, which also suggests directions for further investigation. Further study and regular dietary monitoring are needed in order to know more about food consumption habits in seniors. These investigations must be adapted to the reality of targeted aging populations using precise measurements, diverse approaches, appropriate methods and accurate dietary assessment tools to reflect the great heterogeneity typical of older populations.

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  • The requirements are also needed for clearly distinguishing car-sharing from "fictive car- sharing" such as might be established for the sole purpose of taking advantage of special benefits that genuine car-sharing schemes should be eligible for. The requirement of the administrator of a car-sharing scheme being a legal entity (requirement 1) and of each vehicle being registered in the name of a legal entity (requirement 4) reduces the risk of misuse.

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  • Climate change can also be expected to have serious consequences on water resources. Melting glaciers, higher intensity and more variable rainfall events, and increasing temperatures will contribute to increased inland flooding, water scarcity and decreasing water quality. Overall, the greatest human requirement for freshwater resources is for crop irrigation, particularly for farming in arid regions and in the great paddy fields of Asia.

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  • You’ll start by speaking with the analysts and reading their reports. (See the “Career Track” box for insights on the work of the money market credit analyst.) If the fund you’re managing ranges beyond U.S. Treasuries, you’ll need rigorous research to determine which securities provide minimal credit risk. You’ll be investing in them for three to six months or longer and need to be confident that they’ll repay the fund at the end of the period.

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  • For small join tables, REED always chooses to push them into the network if their selectivity is smaller than one. For intermediate tables, the REED query optimizer makes a decision as to whether to push the join into the network based on the estimated selectivity of the predicate (which may be learned from past performance or gathered statistics, or estimated using basic query optimization tech- niques [28]) and the average depth of sensor nodes in the network.

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  • Before meeting Margaret and Mama Lomayani, Maria would go to church and cry all day. But now, “They have given me hope,” she says. Maria braids hair and washes her neighbor’s clothes to earn money, but it is difficult to make ends meet. Mama Lomayani is helping Maria obtain a small loan to buy shampoo and oils to sell and to expand her hair-braiding business. She also hopes to sell jewelry and other small items to her clients. This money will go straight into a bank account to pay for her son’s future school fees.

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  • Cancers of the oropharynx often metastasize to upper and middle jugular chain lymph nodes (Levels II and III), but can also spread to retropharyngeal lymph nodes, which distinguishes them from oral cavity tumors and must be considered when treating oropharyngeal cancers. Tumors in this site are generally treated with radiotherapy, as a single modality for T 1/2 or N 0/1 stages. Increas- ingly, some of these cancers are associated with human papilloma virus 16 infection, especially in nonsmokers.

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  • Credit hour is the unit by which an institution measures its course work. The number of credit hours assigned to a course quantitatively reflects the outcomes expected, the mode of instruction, the amount of time spent in class, and the amount of outside preparatory work expected for the class. Considerable variation exists from institution to institution and within a given institution. A semester credit hour is the most commonly used system of measuring course work and is usually based on at least a 14-17 week calendar.

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  • This raises the issue of the measurement of the informal sector, which is known to be substantial in transition and developing countries. In the former Soviet Union countries it is estimated to contribute between 20 and 40 per cent of GDP. Even in the European Union (EU) there is considerable informal activity: in Italy, for example, it has been estimated to contribute between 10 and 20 per cent of GDP. It has been estimated that the informal sector contributes some nine trillion ‘undetected’ dollars to global GDP.

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  • The proliferation of social-networks on the Internet, has allowed companies to collect information about social-network users and their social relationships. Social networks like MySpace, Facebook, and Orkut allow us to determine who is acquainted with whom, how frequently they interact online, what interests they have in common, etc. Users are spending increasing amounts of time on social network websites. For instance, a recent survey [11] that ranks websites based on ‘average time spent by a user’, identifies MySpace and Facebook among the top 10 websites.

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  • On August 23rd , the Italian Treasury announced it is preparing a plan to temporarily reduce taxes on gasoline and other petroleum-based fuels by about one-third, sparking protests from environmental organizations saying the lower taxes will negate carbon taxes designed to discourage use of high-polluting fuels. In a prepared statement, the Italian Treasury said it would cut gasoline taxes but that details about the plan are still being worked out. The treasury plans to lower taxes temporarily as a way to ease the blow of rising oil prices.

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