A clickbot is a software robot that clicks on ads (issues HTTP
requests for advertiser web pages) to help an attacker conduct
click fraud. Some clickbots can be purchased, while others
are malware that spread as such and are part of larger botnets.
Malware-type clickbots can receive instructions from a botmas-
ter server as to what ads to click, and how often and when to
There are many types of clickbots used on the Internet. Some
are “for-sale” clickbots, while others are malware.
The high ownership concentration can also serve
as a credible commitment that the controlling owner is willing to build a reputation for
not expropriating minority shareholders (Gomes, 2000). The commitment is credible
because minority shareholders know that if the controlling owner unexpectedly extracts
high levels of private benefits when he/she still holds a substantial amount of shares, they
will discount the stock price accordingly, and the majority owner’s share value will be
Holographic Storage. Stores data on a holographic (3-dimensional) image by
passing light through light-sensitive crystals that retain the light patterns. It
will have multiple thousands of times more memory capacity and no
mechanical movements. Large blocks of data can be written or read with a
single read or write command as opposed to today’s 2-dimensional storages
devices that read and write data one bit at a time.
As we have witnessed during this crisis, financial stress can spread easily and quickly
across national boundaries. Yet, regulation is still set largely in a national context.
Without consistent supervision and regulation, financial institutions will tend to move
their activities to jurisdictions with looser standards, creating a race to the bottom and
intensifying systemic risk for the entire global financial system.
It is important to avoid confusion when dealing with modified psychic phenomena. A
phantasy-feeling is a modified feeling: it is not to be identified with an imagining (a modified
presentation) of a genuine feeling. A phantasy-judgment is a modified judgment: it is not to be
identified with the imagining of a genuine judgment.
Certainly there is a sense in which what one might call the purely qualitative factor in
phantasy-feelings is the same as that of real feelings. But phantasy-feelings nevertheless
differentiate themselves totally from genuine or serious feelings....
Distribution Shares are identifiable by a "D" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AD), with the exception of Monthly
Distribution Shares which are identifiable by an "M" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AM) and Quarterly Distribution
Shares which are identifiable by a "Q" following the sub-fund and Class names (e.g.: Class AQ).
In derogation from the above table, Monthly and Quarterly Distribution Shares are available only in certain countries, subject to the
relevant regulatory approval, through specific distributors selected by the Distributor.
The main findings of our initial research with regard to the structure of the European microfinance
market are still valid. We are not going to repeat the analysis here but refer the interested reader
to the details of the original paper (see Kraemer-Eis and Conforti, 2009). We can summarise our
findings at the time in the following way:
SMEs constitute the backbone of entrepreneurship in the EU, irrespective of national
boundaries. The majority of these companies are micro-enterprises; in the EU-27, 92% of
the companies have fewer than 10 employees.
The Reserve Fund was only the second MMMF to break the buck since the SEC adopted rules governing
these funds in 1983, with the first being the Community Bankers US Government Fund in 1994.
funds had losses significant enough to cause them to break the buck and sponsors that were unable to
provide non-contractual support to prevent the losses from being passed on to shareholders. However, it
was the lack of sponsor support for these two funds that was more unusual than the underlying losses
suffered, as credit events have impacted many more than two funds in the...
Improving the quality and efficiency of provision and outcomes: Social media offer a
broad variety of versatile tools which address different channels and involve learners more
actively in constructing their own learning process, allowing more effective learning
strategies to be implemented. Research evidence indicates that Learning 2.0 strategies can
furthermore improve individual performance, actively foster the development of transversal
competences, and nurture abilities to flexibly develop skills in a lifelong learning continuum.
Yet – outside the major pension funds and insurance companies – institutional investor allocations to clean
energy projects remain limited, particularly when it comes to the types of direct investment which can help
close the financing gap. Reasons for institutional investor hesitancy include a lack of information and
expertise when it comes to the type of direct infrastructure investment required to finance clean energy
projects, and a potentially unsupportive regulatory backdrop.
An on-line auction website prevents attackers from guessing the passwords of users by temporarily locking accounts
that receive too many failed attempts (5 tries) in a given amount of time. Once an account is locked, the attacker (or
the user) must wait for a timeout to expire (1 hr) before attempting to login again. Account locking is one of several
techniques used to slow down brute force attacks.
Once logged-in, users are able to browse items being auctioned and view who bid on what. To place a bid, a user is
asked for their password to verify their intent, which...
The promoter who is able to plan well in advance so that he can define
exactly what he wants and can give his designers adequate time to complete
their work, will usually get best value for money. Acontractor who tenders for
works that have been designed in all essentials and which are not subse-
quently altered, will usually be able to give a good price and fast construction.
Bearing the foregoing in mind, lived experiences have been carefully selected and
synchronised with generic ideas and principles of project management. By starting
with the evolution of project management, the objective was to locate the discipline in
its historical context, thus creating awareness to the project manager that he/she will
be practising within a community of professionals. This is followed by the definition of
the concept of project, which concomitantly elucidates related terms to which the
project manager will find recourse from time-to-time.
The acquisition phase is one of the major changes in infrastructure from the days before big data.
Because big data refers to data streams of higher velocity and higher variety, the infrastructure
required to support the acquisition of big data must deliver low, predictable latency in both
capturing data and in executing short, simple queries; be able to handle very high transaction
volumes, often in a distributed environment; and support flexible, dynamic data structures.
NoSQL databases are frequently used to acquire and store big data.
While at one time it might have been acceptable for companies to capture just the obviously “important” data and throw
the rest away, today leading companies understand that the value of their data goes far deeper. The decision about which
data to keep and which to throw away—that is, which data will prove to be important in the future—is deceptively hard to
The research was undertaken using a common
methodology, set of research questions and
analytic framework for reporting. Prior to the
fieldwork, a policy and situational analysis was
undertaken by each team, based on the work
of locally recruited consultants who assembled
relevant policy documents, programme and project
reports and plans, academic articles, and associated
“grey” literature. During the site visits, interviews
were conducted with key staff of WHO and UNFPA
country offices, MOH and other government
Further study is needed to disentangle this interaction
and the underlying mechanisms. moreover, the balance of
evidence maintains that outdoor air pollution has a mod-
est effect on the occurrence of anemia in schoolchildren.
Exposure to air pollution may increase the risk of anemia
in children through several mechanisms The biological
mechanisms by which air pollutants may interfere with
the process of red blood cell production are reflected in
the synthesis of hem, the forming of red blood cells, and
In the Asian monsoon and adjacent
regions, the aerosol forcing and
responses of the water cycle are
even more complex. Both direct and
indirect effects may take place locally
and simultaneously, interacting with
each other. In addition to local effects,
monsoon rainfall may be affected
by aerosols transported from other
regions and intensif ied through
large-scale circulation and moisture
In 1990, the Organic Foods Production Act (Act) established national standards for the production and handling of organic products and required the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) to issue regulations to implement the legislation. The Secretary delegated the functions of the Act to the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), and through regulations effective in October 2002, the National Organic Program (NOP) was created to administer these standards and to require mandatory certification of organic production.
Body solder differs from conventional solders in that it becomes semi-solid, i.e., spreadable, before it melts fully
into liquid. A small gas blowlamp is ideal for soldering small to moderate areas. It can only be applied properly to
absolutely clean bare metal, using a liquid or paste flux. Always observe sensible precautions; remove any
flammable materials or plastics from the surrounding area, and check the rear of the repair for wires, pipes or
other items which may be damaged or catch fire.
Grind the rusted area back to bare metal, finishing with a wire brush if necessary to...