Recycling of polymers

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  • If the 20th century could be characterized by the rapid increase in the production and consumption of materials that helped improving the standards of living, then the 21st certainly has many elements to qualify as the century of recycling. Since the duration of life of a number of wastes is very small (roughly 40% have duration of life smaller than one month), there is a vast waste stream that reaches each year to the final recipients creating a serious environmental problem.

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  • Synthetic polymers are essential for modern human life, since they are used in industrial and agricultural fields. However, most synthetic polymers that have been developed by using petroleum and coal as raw materials are not compatible with the environment, since they cannot be included in the natural recycling system. There are serious contradictions between the convenience that people require today and compatibility with the natural environment. It is easy to say that we should use only natural materials in order to solve the problems coming from man-made materials.

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  • Each section includes chapters with interesting topics. Authors spread around the world have been resolved so we are delighted that this book represents research in promising high. Material properties are described in more creative ways for the standard components or biological materials and sources of natural materials. Commonly used materials such as glass, carbon, epoxy resin, concrete, ... described the characteristics improve or construction work. Waste materials use and recycling is the next step and it is a important way how to save resources and our environment....

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  • Pulp and paper is a mature industry. Industrialised paper manufacturing in Europe started in the early 19th century (Berkhout, 2005). It is a capital and resource-intensive industry that contributes to many environmental problems, including global warming, human tox- icity, eco-toxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, nutrification, and solid wastes (Blazejczak and Edler, 2000). Paper is made of natural fibres, either from wood or from recycled materials. Figure 1 below presents a schematic representation of the production system.

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  • Application of sewage sludge to agricultural land may be beneficial because it can improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which may enhance crop growth (BECK et al. 1996). To achieve this, sludge application cannot just be a way of disposing of the sludges but a deliberate application in order to recycle nutrients and to restitute organic matter to soils in order to prevent over-exploitation of agricultural soils in the Community (MARMO 2000).

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  • Hexabromobenzene (HBB) has been used as a flame retardant in polymers, plastics, textiles, wood and paper. Its primary uses have been reported in the plastics, paper and electrical industries (Bruchajzer et al., 2004). U.S. production/import volume was listed as 10,000- 500,000 pounds for 1998, but no information is available beyond that time (U.S. EPA, 2002). In addition to its use as a flame retardant, HBB is a thermal decomposition product of octa- and decaBDEs and hexabromobiphenyl (as cited in Bruchajzer et al., 2004).

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