Xem 1-20 trên 115 kết quả Reduce emissions
  • There are two main reasons why the chemical process industry should be motivated to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: rising concerns in companies, the public and scientifi c community about climate change or global warming, and the increasing fraction of energy in manufacturing costs. ‘ Climate change ’ [1] in this context, means a change of climate, which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods....

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  • Report by the Comm. on Climate and Tropical Forests, which was formed in 2009 to ensure effective protection of tropical forests primarily as part of U.S. climate change policies, but also through engagement in internat. agree. The intent has been to create actionable, politically viable recommend. that can inform and guide the U.S. in its legislative and diplomatic negotiations on this issue. Contents: Summary for Policy Makers; Climate Change and Tropical Forests; Financing Forest Emission Reductions; International Cooperation; Designing U.S.

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  • As recently as the late 1970’s air emissions in Europe and the USA were terribly high. For instance, in 1978 sulfur dioxide (SO2)-emissions in Europe stood at 70 million tons (Figure 1), almost three times higher than current Chinese emissions. Not only were emissions terribly high, but any impartial observer of the future seen from the perspective of 1978, basing his views on recent trends in European SO2-emissions from 1945-1978, would have had to admit that realistically, emissions would continue to grow.

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  • This document is one of several white papers that summarize readily available information on control techniques and measures to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from specific industrial sectors.

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  • Liquid fuel consumption by medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs) represents 26 percent of all U.S. liquid transportation fuels consumed and has increased more rapidly—in both absolute and percentage terms—than consumption by other sectors. In early recognition of these trends, which are forecast to continue until 2035 (DOE, EIA, 2009), the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA; Public Law 110-140, Dec. 19, 2007), Section 108, was passed, requiring the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), for the first time in history, to establish fuel economy standards for MHDVs.

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  • Global warming is the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth's average surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 °C, with about two thirds of the increase occurring since 1980. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain that most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels.

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  • The environment is key to sustaining human economic activity and well-being, for without a healthy environment, human quality of life is reduced. Most people would agree that there are also many reasons to protect the environment for its own inherent worth, and especially to leave a legacy of fully functioning natural resources. Sustainable land management refers to the activities of humans and implies that activity will continue in perpetuity. It is a term that attempts to balance the often conflicting ideals of economic growth and maintaining environmental quality and viability....

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  • Automation is the use of control systems (such as numerical control, programmable logic control, and other industrial control systems), in concert with other applications of information technology (such as computer-aided technologies [CAD, CAM, CAx]), to control industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.

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  • With increasing energy demands, dwindling fossil energy resources, and environmental concerns associated with criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases, significant attention in the power generation community has been focused on increasing efficiency and reducing emissions. A highly efficient and low-emission concept is the fuel cell gas turbine (GT) hybrid. Hybrid systems are comprised of fuel cells integrated with a GT engine. A variety of potential configurations have been proposed and a number of cycles have been investigated.

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  • Information about climate1 is used to make decisions every day. From farmers deciding which crops to plant next season to mayors in large cities deciding how to prepare for future heat waves, and from an insurance company assessing future flood risks to a national security planner assessing future conflict risks from the impacts of drought, users of climate information span a vast array of sectors in both the public and private spheres. Each of these communities has different needs for climate data, with different time horizons (see Box 1) and different tolerances for uncertainty...

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  • Since the 1940s the use of pesticides has grown steadily at about 11 percent a year, reaching five million T in 1995. Pesticides and fertilizers play a central role in agriculture and contribute to an enhanced food production worldwide. Agrochemical use, mainly in developed countries, is being reduced while organic (no synthetic chemicals) farming methods are being reinvented.

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  • Economists have long advocated pollution taxes as a policy to improve water quality. One of the reasons water effluent taxes are embraced by economists interested in market-based policies is that sources of water pollution are varied and difficult to assess individually in terms of control costs. In principle, taxes overcome this problem. With a price—the tax—applied to pollution emissions, firms compare the price to their costs of emissions control. If the price is higher than control costs, they reduce emissions rather than pay the tax.

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  • The environmental goods and services  (EGS) sector has  traditionally  included solutions  for problems  such  as  air, noise  and marine pollution,  land  and water  contamination,  as well  as  activities  such  as  environmental  analysis  and  consultancy  and  waste  management  and  recycling.  However  more  recently,  the  definition  of  this  sector  has  widened.

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  • When planning how to reduce the threat of global warming and how to adapt to it, a very important piece of information is how intense the change will be. That implies estimating the trends of future concentrations of greenhouse gasses, and the potential future changes in temperature, precipitation, storm events and other climatic variables. These predictions are important not only to estimate the magnitude of the changes, but also to determine the uncertainty surrounding them.

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  • More recently,  the definition of  this sector has needed  to reflect  the drive  to reduce CO2 equivalent  emissions from the wider economy.

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  • Ý niệm giảm khí thải nhà nóng từ sự giảm phá rừng và làm rừng thoái hóa, gọi là REDD (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) là một ý niệm mới, được tạo ra để đánh giá là rừng có những dịch vụ môi trường và có giá trị cao phục vụ cho con người và vì thế phải được bảo vệ,

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  • The use of alternative fuels to displace coal reduces reliance on fossil fuels, reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants, and contributes to long-term cost savings for cement plants. Further, due to their high burning temperatures, cement kilns are well-suited for accepting and efficiently utilizing a wide range of wastes that can present a disposal challenge. This report begins with an overview of the types of alternative fuels used in cement kilns, focusing on energy and environmental considerations.

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  • In gravity injection, small volumes of reagents are gravity-fed into injection well(s) over a longer application period. The distribution and dissipation of the reagents in the saturated zone is largely controlled by the site hydrogeologic conditions. The gravity injection approach may reduce some of risks associated with chemical oxidation technologies. Additionally, given its prolonged application period, the oxidants may be able to penetrate into more of the lower permeability soils to address contaminants in these areas.

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  • decreasing their value added. Successful, cost-effective investment into energy efficiency technologies and practices meets the challenge of maintaining the output of a high quality product while reducing production costs. This is especially important, as energy efficient technologies often include “additional” benefits, such as increasing the productivity of the company. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry, making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs.

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  • Current efforts to address climate change focus mainly on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly through cleaner energy strategies, and on attempting to reduce vulnerability of communities at risk by improving infrastructure to meet new energy and water needs. This report attempts to set out a compelling argument for including ecosystem‐based approaches to mitigation and adaptation as a third and essential pillar in national strategies to address climate change. The report is targeted at both Bank task teams and country clients.

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