This dissertation will outline solution processable materials and fabrication techniques to
manufacture flexible electronic devices from them. Conductive ink formulations and
inkjet printing of gold and silver on plastic substrates were examined. Line patterning and
mask printing methods were also investigated as a means of selective metal deposition on
various flexible substrate materials. These solution-based manufacturing methods
provided deposition of silver, gold and copper with a controlled spatial resolution and a
very high electrical conductivity.
Global competition has caused the US textile industry to modernize and
become cost competitive because developing nations have discovered that exporting
textile products to the USA is an attractive way to enhance their economic growth.
Their low labor costs have pressured domestic producers into replacing labor
intensive manufacturing equipment with automated, sophisticated, efficient, hightechnology
machinery. The industry has focused on reducing costs, improving quality
and developing quick turnaround and response scenarios.
Freeform fabrication technology does not
require pre-formed mandrels or tooling;
instead, it builds physical objects directly
from computer graphical data. This type of
technology is also known as layer
manufacturing, since it constructs the three-
dimensional object layer by layer (Jacobs,
1992; Beaman et al., 1997). The technology
has proved that it can help to rapidly provide
feedback on design concepts, discover
inconsistencies in the design, modify the
design, and eliminate inconsistency before
fabricating the design.
Lithography, the fundamental fabrication process of semiconductor devices, is playing
a critical role in micro- and nano-fabrications and the revolution in high density integrated
circuits. Traditional optical lithography (photolithography) including contact and project
photolithography has contributed significantly to the semiconductor device advancements.
The advent of novel materials for electronics, optoelectronics and nanoelectronics holds the
promise for new microelectronic device designs and applications across all fields of science
and technology. Furthermore, the increasing sophistication of fabrication processes and
techniques used in the semiconductor industry has resulted in the ability to produce circuits
of greater complexity at remarkably reduced costs, a trend which has been continuing over
the past half-century.
CHAPTER 5 NICKEL AND ITS ALLOYS T. H. Bassford Jim Hosier
Inco Alloys International, Inc. Huntington, West Virginia
5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 NICKELALLOYS 5.2.1 Classification of Alloys 5.2.2 Discussion and Applications 5.3 CORROSION 5.4 FABRICATION 5.4.1 Resistance to Deformation 5.4.2 Strain Hardening
71 72 72 72 80 82 82 82
5.5 HEATTREATMENT 5.5.1 Reducing Atmosphere 5.5.2 Prepared Atmosphere 5.6 WELDING 5.7 MACHINING 5.8 CLOSURE
84 84 85 86 86 88
Nickel, the 24th element in abundance, has an average content of 0.016% in the outer 10 miles of the earth's crust.
Natural photoprotection is provided by structural proteins in the epidermis, particularly keratins and melanin. The amount of melanin and its distribution in cells is genetically regulated, and individuals of darker complexion (skin types IV–VI) are at decreased risk for the development of acute sunburn and cutaneous malignancy.
Other forms of photoprotection include clothing and sunscreens. Clothing constructed of tightly woven sun-protective fabrics, irrespective of color, affords substantial protection. Wide-brimmed hats, long sleeves, and trousers all reduce direct exposure.
Kang et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:236 http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/6/1/236
Anti-reflective nano- and micro-structures on 4H-SiC for photodiodes
Min-Seok Kang1, Sung-Jae Joo2, Wook Bahng2, Ji-Hoon Lee1, Nam-Kyun Kim2, Sang-Mo Koo1*
Abstract In this study, nano-scale honeycomb-shaped structures with anti-reflection properties were successfully formed on SiC. The surface of 4H-SiC wafer after a conventional photolithography process was etched by inductively coupled plasma.
Semiconductor nanostructures are currently one of the largest and most exciting
areas in solid state physics. Low-dimensional electron systems (realized in
semiconductor quantum structures) are particularly appealing because they
allow one to study many-particle effects in reduced dimensions. Inelastic light
scattering gives direct access to the elementary excitations of those systems.
What does VLAN trunking protocol (VTP) do?
A. Propagates global VLAN information.
B. Sets trunk priority levels of adjacent switches.
C. Ensures that there is a trunk or VLAN 1 operating.
D. Adjusts VLAN interswitch links to reduce parallel load sharing.
E. Maps the non contiguous switch fabric across the global VLAN.
Before the Modular Wetlands Device was installed, the boat wash water was treated by
StormCeptor vaults installed in 2003. After installation, bacteria levels still exceeded action levels.
Further attempts to reduce bacteria levels resulted in a pilot study conducted by the City of
Oceanside. According to the Bacterial Reduction Pilot Program – Oceanside Harbor, XTEX AM
antimicrobial fabric filters were installed on the separator vaults in addition to more frequent
cleaning of the boat wash out separation vaults and drains as part of the study.
The electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was adopted for a fabrication of nanocomposite layers composed of ZnO particles covered by the polythiopene shell in a reduced state. This composite was prepared by oxidative polymerization of thiophene monomer with iron (III) chloride as a catalyst in the presence of ZnO particles. After polymerization, polythiophene in oxidized form was reduced by the extraction in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the obtained composite were measured by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.