The first rudimentary notion of what can be called risk, may have arisen, according to
Covello and Munpower (1985), around 3200 BC in the valley between the Tigris and
Euphrates Rivers, where lived a group called “Asipu”. A major function of this group was to
help people who needed to make difficult decisions. The “Asipus”, when sought, identified
the scale of the problem, the alternatives and the consequences of each alternative. Then,
they drew up a table, marking the positive and negative points of each alternative to
indicate the best decision....
The current nutritional and health profiles of the Mexican population reflect notable failures
in the field of social policies. Protein-energy malnutrition and infectious diseases are still
relevant public health matters among poor rural and urban populations, and they remain
common causes of death during infancy and childhood, and even later in life.
Th is book has grown out of our own mentoring experiences and studies and from a philosophy
that advocates listening, questioning, and collaborating. Using these strategies, mentors help
beginning teachers to recognize problems and then to fi nd ways of refl ecting, talking, and
responding. As Maya Angelou states, we may infl uence many people we never see; mentors
infl uence beginning teachers’ current and future students, making the role of mentoring a
vital one for the education profession.
Investing in infrastructure and innovation will be crucial for ensuring new sources of growth that
better reflect the full value to economic activity to society. OECD analysis shows that greener growth can
deliver important economic gains. These can be realised through enhanced resource productivity, reduced
waste and energy consumption, and from ensuring that natural resources are priced to reflect their true
As awareness of the urgency to address climate
change continues to grow, governments and other
stakeholders, including the United Nations System,
are mobilizing to support the establishment and
implementation of a new comprehensive post-2012
climate regime under the aegis of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The pioneering cardiac surgeon Alain Carpentier, MD, PhD, developed a functional
classification to reflect the underlying pathological changes that contributed to MR
(Carpentier A. 1983) (Figure 4). As described in this classification, type I MR is characterized
as normal leaflet motion but with annular dilatation or leaflet perforation; type II lesions are
related to leaflet prolapse and may be caused by myxomatous disease, such as chord
rupture or elongation, or by papillary muscle rupture or elongation; and type III lesions are
caused by restricted leaflet motion.
The objective of the present book, which tries to summarize in an edited format and in a fairly comprehensive manner, many of the recent technical research accomplishments in the area of Smart Actuators and Smart Sensors, is to combine researchers and scientists from different fields into a single virtual room.
In addition to the discussions on whether a two-pronged approach should be adopted, the session also offers an
opportunity to discuss which gender issues should be prioritized in a future development agenda. There has been a call
to focus on women’s strategic priorities which will help to transform women’s lives in the long-term. It has also been
suggested that the new goals should reflect an understanding that women’s poverty is, in part, a result of their socially
enforced gender roles and relations.
By 2003 an explosion in political, legislative and academic interest in the field of
trafficking and smuggling of human beings in Europe was well underway. It was
in part a reflection of the international concern regarding smuggling and trafficking
which was expressed in the United Nations Convention against Transnational
Organised Crime and two draft protocols, one to Prevent, Suppress and
Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children and the other to
combating smuggling of persons which supplement the convention adopted in
My reflections and perspective were also based on other important parts of ray own political
experience: the preceding work of the Brandt Commission on North South issues, and the
Palme Commission on security and disarmament issues, on which I served.
I was being asked to help formulate a third and compelling call for political action: After
Brandt's Programme for Survival and Common Crisis, and after Palme's Common Security,
would come Common Future. This was my message when Vice Chairman Mansour Khalid and
I started work on the ambitious task set up by the United Nations.
Some observations need to be made regarding the FSA findings. The average price of homes in the U.K.
from £ 137,273 in Q2 2002 to £179,170 in Q2 2012 reflects a nominal price development. If one corrects
these prices on basis of U.K inflation levels over this period, than the conclusion is that over this decade
nothing extraordinary has happened: house prices have just kept up with U.K. inflation levels and nothing
more than that. Of course the period of 2002-2007 showed rapid value changes, but the correction has taken
place over the period 2007-2012. A study based on...
Despite the success in controlling ináation, during the late 1990s-early 2000 international
capital markets witnessed large swings in stock prices generating concern among academics
and policy-makers about the impact of stock price movements on the real economy and the
broader consequences of ináation targeting. Kontonikas and Ioannidis (2005) show that an
ináation targeting regime with strong interest rate reaction to ináation should lead to lower
stock market volatility. On the other hand, the New Environment Hypothesis (NEH, see
By focusing on the disease endpoint, and how various kinds of diseases are
impacted by environmental influences, the analysis forges new ground in an
understanding of interactions between environment and health. The estimates,
in effect, reflect how much death, illness and disability could realistically be
avoided every year as a result of reduced human exposures to environmental
Specifically considered here are "modifiable" environmental factors realistically
amenable to change using available technologies, policies, and preventive and
public health measures.
As, in accordance
with the acting banking regulations in Bulgaria bank are required to take collateral, the prior
is that, in the case of proper screening, there would be a positive association between bank
lending and the fixed capital ratio. Size is another variable that would allow to test the credit
channel hypothesis. The prior is that a credit squeeze is more likely to affect smaller firms.
Several variables reflect the specificity of bank lending in a transitional environment.
An automatic essay paraphrasing system, written in JOVIAL, produces essay-like paraphrases of input texts written in a subset of English. The format and content of the essay paraphrase are controlled by an outline that is part of the input text. An individual sentence in the paraphrase may often reflect the content of several sentences in the input text. The system uses dependency rather than transformational criteria, and future versions of the system may come to resemble a dynamic implementation of a stratificational model of grammar....
Journal writing is a technique that has been promoted by educators in many fields,
including nursing, counseling and management, as a means of facilitating reflective
practice and stimulating critical thinking (for a review see Bain et al., 1999). In the
field of teacher education reflection is widely acknowledged and promoted as a criti-
cal element in the professional development of teachers (Zeichner, 1992; Calderhead
& Gates, 1993).
Against this background, we make several advances over the literature. We construct
a new dataset that covers virtually the entire global stock market in capitalization terms and
find—for this more comprehensive dataset—that industry effects have gone from less than
half as important as country effects in the mid-1990s to almost twice as important in recent
years. This shift is primarily driven by a dramatic rise in magnitude of industry effects, with
country effects roughly stable since the mid-1990s.
A cervical cytological sample is considered satisfactory for cytological diagnosis
when their composition reflects the mucosal lining of the cervix, encompassing ectocervical,
squamous metaplastic cells and endocervical columnar cells in fair numbers. It is generally
agreed that majority of epithelial abnormalities that eventually lead to an invasive cancer
originate in the squamo-columnar junction (transformation zone). As stated by the British
Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC), a cervical smear if properly taken should contain cells
from the whole transformation zone(TZ).
Reflections on School Integration approaches a contentious and topical issue with level-headed insight based on solid, rigorous research. Delegates at a colloquium to define a research agenda for the future, reviewed the latest international and local research and practice in the field of desegregation and integration of schools, took stock of the status quo in research and practice, and identified new directions research should be taking. This publication features the papers of a range of colloquium contributors.
So, even if it is desirable that the postal bank should attract funds in a confidence crisis,
the systemic benefits will not be felt unless the “exit” side of the system is designed to
assure prompt recycling. And, even if such recycling is sufficiently automatic to keep the
postal bank’s role on the lending side completely neutral, distortions can still result unless
prices are set to reflect fully the actual costs and risks of the products offered.