he specific country cultures are not only different in regard to their health systems, but also in integrating gender aspects in research, policy and practice. The very definitions of health, illness and health related social problems are different. If networks focus on gender specific aspects of health and illness, the necessity for transnational communication is evident.
In general, pregnant women’s access to HIV testing is high due to the
implementation in 2001 of a national policy mandating that all pregnant
women be offered an HIV test at the first level of health care. However,
one result of Argentina’s federal system is that there are great disparities
around the country in terms of health care availability and quality,
including in regard to prevention of vertical transmission coverage
and services. In some cities fewer than 70 percent of pregnant women
take an HIV test prior to going into labour2
Because air quality “increments” were exceeded in North Dakota in the early 1980s, the NPS was required
under the Clean Air Act to make a determination as to whether or not the exceedance would be likely to
produce an “adverse impact” to air quality-related values in the Theodore Roosevelt National Park. Lichen
species determined to be present in the park (Wetmore 1983) and potentially sensitive to air pollutants were
evaluated with regard to concentrations of air pollutants known to cause health impacts to these species.
This paper presents a stock flow model of two economies (together comprising the whole world)
which trade goods and financial assets with one another. The accounting framework, though
comprehensive in its own terms, is very much simplified (it has interest rates without interest
payments and exchange rate changes without changes in relative prices) so as to reach the main
conclusions as simply and easily as possible.
Human rights are legally guaranteed by
human rights law, protecting individuals and
groups against actions that interfere with fundamental
freedoms and human dignity.(3) They
encompass what are known as civil, cultural,
economic, political and social rights. Human
rights are principally concerned with the relationship
between the individual and the state.
Governmental obligations with regard to
human rights broadly fall under the principles
of respect, protect and fulfil.
In today’s changing economy people’s priorities in regard to health care are also changing. Consider what the prospective patients want or need the most. Don’t think about what you want to sell, but determine what it is that they want to buy, and then deliver it to them.
The fit between existing capacities and the health care needs of the
population remains less than ideal, but improvements have been made over the
past 15 years. In general, the average length of stay and hospital admission rates
have decreased since 1990, as have bed occupancy rates. However, capacity
for long-term nursing care in both the inpatient and outpatient setting is still
With regard to human resources in the health care sector, Hungary had
3.1 active physicians per 1000 population in 2008. The number of physicians
has dropped substantially since 2003, and increased professional mobility may
lead to a further decline in this ratio in the near future. Physicians are unevenly
distributed, both in terms of geography and specialties. A similar trend can be
observed for the allied health care personnel.
Important notice Many practical techniques described in this book involve potentially dangerous applications of electricity and engineering equipment. The authors, editors and publishers cannot take responsibility for any personal, professional or financial risk involved in carrying out these techniques, or any resulting injury, accident or loss. The techniques described in this book should only be implemented by professional and fully qualified electrical engineers using their own professional judgement and due regard to health and safety issues....
These guidelines shall be included in all research that Aboriginal Women’s Health
It shall be the responsibility, in the first instance, of all researchers to observe these
guidelines to monitor the implementation of the guidelines and to make decisions regarding
their interpretation and application.
From 1999–2003, FRONTIERS implemented a Global Agenda program of operations research
(OR) projects to address the reproductive health (RH) needs of adolescents in four countries—
Bangladesh, Kenya, Mexico, and Senegal. The project was implemented in urban areas of Saint-
Louis and Louga, in northwestern Senegal, and was called Improving the Reproductive Health of
Youth in Senegal.
While there appears to be a rising incidence of problem drinking in the elderly, there are
also reports that low risk drinking may provide benefits to older populations. Indeed.
arguably most of the supposed benefits of alcohol consumption are to be found in older
people. So, for example, the claimed protective effect of alcohol in regard to
cardiovascular disease applies to the late middle aged and elderly. For this reason, the
recommended optimum level of alcohol consumption for health is higher for the elderly
than the young.
Participants from DCF stakeholder groups (provider countries / recipient countries / civil society and parliamentarians /
UN system) are expected to brainstorm within their respective groups on how to advance gender equality in light of new
challenges faced by development cooperation, including the transition to sustainable development and the coordination
among different actors, approaches and flows to promote gender equality and the empowerment of women.
Environmental health decision making can be a complex undertaking, as
there is the need to navigate and find balance among three core elements: science,
policy, and the needs of the American public. Much of environmental
health decision making started in the 1950s and 1960s and was focused on
health effects of simple environmental exposures. However, scientific knowledge
has rapidly changed as new technologies and new insights into the complexity
of environment–health interactions have emerged.
Risk analysis and public perceptions of risk
It is estimated that between 60,000 and 70,000 industrial and commercial chemicals are currently in use in North America, with the possibility of more coming on-stream every day. Only about 3500 of these have been studied sufﬁciently to conduct any sort of risk assessment regarding human health, and such studies characteristically use only one route of administration (portal of entry).
This session is an occasion to discuss good practices in MDG achievement with regard to gender equality that can help
improve the way in which development cooperation promotes gender equality in a more systematic way while also
improving its own effectiveness and coherence in line with national and international agreements.
Achievement of such commitments is a key driver of effective development cooperation on all fronts.
Adolescents who become pregnant prior to
completion of their education typically face
expulsion from school, and those who give
birth often are not readmitted. In many African
societies for example, once a young woman
has given birth she is regarded as an adult, a
role that is generally perceived as
incompatible with continued formal educa-
tion. In the event that a young woman is
forced to abandon her education due to early
pregnancy, she likely faces curtailment of her
social, intellectual and economic develop-
This book began as a study of Japanese public policy, more speciﬁcally
the legal, ethical, and political dimensions of health policy debates in
Japan. Having studied medico-legal conﬂicts in the United States,
and the tensions they generated between public health and individual
rights, state power and personal privacy, medical paternalism and
patients’ rights, I decided to examine how such concerns were
addressed in Japan with regard to AIDS policy and the deﬁnition of
Air Travel and High-Altitude Destinations Commercial air travel is not a risk to the healthy pregnant woman or to the fetus. The higher radiation levels reported at altitudes of 10,500 m (35,000 ft) should pose no problem to the healthy pregnant traveler. Since each airline has a policy regarding pregnancy and flying, it is best to check with the specific carrier when booking reservations. Domestic air travel is usually permitted until the 36th week, whereas international air travel is generally curtailed after the 32nd week.
Many indicators regarding the health of
the world’s environment remain firmly in
the red. Trends such as climate change,
water scarcity, air pollution, biodiversity
loss and ecosystem degradation all
continue to threaten our finite stock
of natural capital and the ability of
our economy to provide sustainable
growth and prosperity for all.
A great deal of this environmental damage is caused by the
way we do business. If we are to create a truly sustainable
global economy, then we must change our economic
models so that business can become part of the solution,
not part of the problem. ...