Regional pathways

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  • In a book titled Photosynthesis it is easy to forget that light is not simply the energy driving plant metabolism. Light also is the central environmental factor that affects plant size, shape and development. In fact, light activation of photomorphogenic signaling pathways sets the stage for photosynthesis and ensures the maintenance of the apparatus. The effects of specific wavebands of light exert their influence on plant biology from the molecular level all the way up to the higher morphological level, and even contribute to the canopy form as a whole.

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  • This book is an attempt to situate archaeology within the domain of contemporary human affairs, and to forge a new methodology for coping with environmental problems from an archaeological perspective. From this perspective, the papers included in this volume highlight the aspects of the historical relationships between people and climatic change that are potentially useful in coping with current climatic fluctuations.

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  • Particles, as noted above, can provide an exposure pathway for SVOCs, but they also can present a serious health risk on their own. They range in size from very small (0.001 μm to 10 μm), which can remain in the air for a long time, up to relatively large (100 μm), which quickly settle out of calm air. Inhaling particulates can cause eye, nose, and throat irritation and can increase the risk for respiratory infections. Health care professionals are especially concerned about the long-term effects of inhaling ultrafine particles (less than 2.

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  • This work investigated the kinetics of catabolism and the catabolic fate of the newly synthesized 35 S-labelled proteo-glycans present in explant cultures of tendon. Tissue from the proximal region of bovine deep flexor tendon was incu-bated with [ 35 S]sulfate for 6 h and then placed in explant cultures for periods of up to 15 days. The amount of radi-olabel associatedwithproteoglycans and free [ 35 S]sulfate lost to themediumand retained in thematrixwas determined for each day in culture.

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  • A multiprotein complex encompassing a transcription regulator, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), and the calpain 3 protease was identified in the N2A elastic region of the giant sarcomeric protein titin. The present study aimed to investigate the function(s) of this complex in the skeletal muscle. We demonstrate that CARP subcellular localization is controlled by the activity of calpain 3: the higher the calpain 3, the more important the sarcomeric retention of CARP.

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  • Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate in the shikimate pathway. In this study, we determined the kinetic properties and crystal structures of Staphylococcus epidermidisSDH (SeSDH) both in its ligand-free form and in complex with shikimate.

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  • The department offers formal training in occupational and environmental health, with particular strength in the areas of the application of biomarkers of exposure, dose, and susceptibility; molecular, occupational, and environmental epidemiology; and occupational and environmental policy and management. Occupational and environmental health faculty members are engaged in a wide range of research projects, primarily in human research studies utilizing epidemiological methods, often with a focus on disease etiology and causal pathways.

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  • Tobacco pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR-1a) is induced in plants during the hypersensitive response (HR) after exposure of plants to salicylic acid (SA) and by develop-mental cues.Gene activation by these diverse stimuli is mediated via anas-1-like element in the PR-1aupstream region.To further analyze the significance of thiscis-acting sequence, an authentic as-1element from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter was inserted into the PR-1apromoter in place of theas-1-like motif.

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  • Bloodcoagulation is triggeredby the formationof acomplex between factor VIIa (FVIIa) and its cofactor, tissue factor (TF). TF–FVIIa is inhibited by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in two steps: first TFPI is bound to the active site of factor Xa (FXa), and subsequently FXa–TFPI exerts feedback inhibition of TF–FVIIa. The FXa-depend-ent inhibition of TF–FVIIa activity by TFPI leads to for-mation of the quaternary complex TF–FVIIa–FXa–TFPI.

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  • Platelet activation by thrombin plays a major role in the development of haemostasis and thrombosis. Thrombin activates human platelets by cleaving the N-terminal region of G-protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs). On the other hand, the platelet membrane glycoprotein GPIb acts as a thrombin-binding site and promotes platelet activation by low thrombin concentrations.We present here new evidence in favour of a thrombin receptor function for GPIb. We have selected conditions in which thrombin– GPIb interactions were enhanced by thrombin immobiliza-tion....

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  • The c-jungene encodes the protein Jun, a component of the essential transcription factor, AP1. Jun/AP-1 occupies a central position in signal transduction pathways as it is responsible for the induction of a number of genes in response to growth promoters. However, the exact mecha-nisms leading to an enhanced expression of the c-jun gene itself during proliferation, differentiation, cell growth and development are not fully understood. Cell culture studies have given some insight in the mechanisms involved in the up-regulation of c-jun expression by UV irradiation and phorbol esters. ...

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  • This book has been in the making since 2002, when the Ford Foundation generously gave a grant to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) for a project to explore the linkages between trade liberalization, women’s employment, and reproductive health and rights at the macro- and micro-levels.

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  • Disorders of the Sense of Smell These are caused by conditions that interfere with the access of the odorant to the olfactory neuroepithelium (transport loss), injure the receptor region (sensory loss), or damage central olfactory pathways (neural loss). Currently no clinical tests exist to differentiate these different types of olfactory losses. Fortunately, the history of the disease provides important clues to the cause.

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  • The Crawford School is the Australian National University’s policy school, serving Australia, Asia and the Pacific through advanced policy research and professional training. Our reputation rests on first-class research capacities and highly successful graduate training programs. Our graduate training and research frames scholarly and policy debates in Australia and the Asia Pacific region, and Australia’s relationships with the region.

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  • Microbiological source attribution approaches have also been used to estimate the contribution of different sources and transmission pathways of campylobacteriosis in New Zealand. These techniques involve examining the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis at the genotype level by comparing C. jejuni genotypes from humans with those found in a range of food and environmental sources. In 2005, a major source attribution study for campylobacteriosis was initiated at a sentinel surveillance site in the Manawatu region of New Zealand (12). Campylobacter spp.

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  • Sugar conjugation is a major pathway for the inactivation and excretion of both endogenous and exogenous compounds. We report here the molecular cloning and functional characterization of a phenol UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which was named BmUGT1. The complete cDNA clone is 1.6 kb, and the gene is expressed in several tissues of fifth-instar larvae, including fat body, midgut, integument, testis, silk gland and haemocytes. The predicted protein comprises 520 amino acids and has  30% overall amino-acid identity with other members of the UGT family.

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  • SHP-1, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase with two srchomology 2 domains, is expressed predominantly in hematopoietic and epithelial cells and has been implicated in numerous signaling pathways as a negative regulator. Two promoters direct the expression of human and murine SHP-1, and two types of transcripts (I) and (II) SHP-1, are initiated from each of these promoters. The cDNA sequences of (I)SHP-1 and (II)SHP-1 are identical except in the 5¢ untranslated region and in the first few coding nucleotides.

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  • The type of soil strength characteristic (i.e. the variation of soil strength with soil water content) favourable to crop growth depends on both the amount and the distribution of the annual rainfall, and on the nature of the crop. The soil must have sufficient mechanical strength to provide adequate anchorage for the plant throughout its development, and to prevent the collapse of soil water and air pathways by soil overburden pressure and the weight of vehicle and animal traffic. Dense regions of high strength may limit root growth and crop...

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  • The breakpoint cluster region protein, BCR, has protein kinase activity that can auto- and trans-phosphorylate serine, threonine and tyrosine resi-dues. BCR has been implicated in chronic myelogenous leukaemia as well as important signalling pathways, and as such its interaction with 14-3-3 is of major interest. 14-3-3sandfisoforms have been shown previously to be phosphorylatedin vitro andin vivo by BCR kinase on serine and threonine residue(s) but site(s) were not determined.

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  • The complex C1 triggers the activation of the Complement classical pathway through the recognition and binding of antigen–antibody complex by its subunit C1q. The globular region of C1q is responsible for C1 binding to the immune complex. C1q can also bind nonimmune molecules such as DNAand sulfated polysaccharides, leading either to the activation or inhibition of Complement. The binding site of these nonimmune ligands is debated in the literature, and it has beenproposed to be located either in the globular region or in the collagen-like regionof C1q, or inboth....

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