OVER THE PAST DECADE, alternative medical therapies have played an increasingly prominent
role in American health care. In the nation’s grocery stores, homeopathic treatments and over-thecounter
herbal remedies crowd aisles that were once largely devoted to analgesics, sore throat
lozenges, and fruit-flavored, animal-shaped children’s vitamins. Eager to fill their beds and their
coffers, hospitals advertise—even celebrate—the inclusion of nontraditional medical practices.
Despite some clear successes, many countries are still failing to implement the policy and
programme changes needed to improve access to affordable medicines. Although the
challenges faced differ from country to country, a common problem is a lack of techni-
cal capacity to link price data to local policy processes (and so determine the causes of
high prices and unexplained price variations) and to identify and prepare suitable lines of
The main section of this guide contains images and information on the most commonly found
patent medicines in international trade outside Asia. Other sections have also been provided to
give detailed guidance to assist in identification or as useful background information. These
include some information on the medicinal trade; a section on fakes and forensics, and a section
on identification of frequently used species and their derivatives found in products, according to
different types of naming systems used in traditional medicine.
Volume 2 of the four-volume The Facts On File
Encyclopedia of Health and Medicine presents the
body systems that nourish, cleanse, and protect
the body. These are the systems of cells and fluids
and the structures that transport them throughout
the body. Though distinct in their functions and
purposes, these systems overlap and integrate
with one another in inseparable ways.
The Cardiovascular System
Volume 2 opens with “The Cardiovascular System,”
the structures and functions that carry
blood throughout the body.
Stem cell research has the potential to affect the lives of millions
of people in the United States and around the world.
This research is now regularly front-page news because of the
controversy surrounding the derivation of stem cells from
human embryos. Realizing the promise of stem cells for
yielding new medical therapies will require us to grapple with
more than just scientific uncertainties. The stem cell debate
has led scientists and nonscientists alike to contemplate
profound issues, such as who we are and what makes us
The genus Camelus was probably among the last of the major domestic species to be put
to regular use by man. There is a little direct evidence for an exact time of domestication,
mainly because the camel has changed relatively little as a result of selection and,
whereas it is possible at archaeological sites to observe the changes in other species, this
is not the case for camels. Since the early camel owners were nomadic, they left few
permanent mementoes of their presence. The most likely time of domestication, however,
is about 4000 years BP (before present).
As noted above, the number of licensed vaccines and the strategies for their best use change constantly as new products, new indications, and new information become available. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regularly amends immunization recommendations to reflect the evolution of vaccines and vaccination policy in the United States.
This book applies pharmacology to nursing practice, with the overall aim of enhancing
patient care. The main focus of the book is adverse drug reactions, and the implications for
patient monitoring. Adverse drug reactions account for around 4% of UK hospital admissions.
Over 70% of these problems are avoidable (Pirmohamed et al. 2004): the monitoring
of prescribed medications has long been a cause for concern (Royal College of General
Practitioners 1985, DH 2000, Audit Commission 2001, Committee of Public Accounts 2006).
Pandemic planning should consider the need for stockpiling of essential supplies.
Discuss with key suppliers a plan for regular shipments in the event of shortages or
disruptions in transportation systems.
Shortages may occur because of disruptions in transportation systems or inability of
suppliers to meet demands because of their own staff shortages. Canadian supplies
travel long distances by truck, train and aircraft and are vulnerable to any disruption.
Since viewers regularly respond to ﬁlms emotionally as well as cognitively,
it is only natural that a student’s emotional response can occasionally overwhelm
their interpretations of a ﬁlm. As an instructor , I have noticed that those students
who describe being bored by a given ﬁlm often cannot offer much in the way of
interpretation of that ﬁlm during group discussions, and that consequently they
often perform poorly when writing about the ﬁlm.
Table 101-2 General Features of Hemolytic Disorders
Spleen may be enlarged; bossing of skull in severe congenital cases
From normal to severely reduced
Increased (mostly unconjugated)
Reduced to absent
Note: MCV, mean corpuscular volume; MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase.
Diabetes Mellitus Alterations in glucose control and changes in insulin requirements are common problems among patients with diabetes who travel. Changes in time zone, in the amount and timing of food intake, and in physical activity demand vigilant assessment of metabolic control. The traveler with diabetes should pack medication (including a bottle of regular insulin for emergencies), insulin syringes and needles, equipment and supplies for glucose monitoring, and snacks in carryon luggage. Insulin is stable for ~3 months at room temperature but should be kept as cool as possible.
After 40 the muscle fibbers shrink and replaced slowly with a tough fibrous tissue.Muscle changes often begin in the 40s in women. Lipofuscin (an age-related pigment) and fat are deposited in muscle tissue. This is most noticeable in the hands, which may appear thin and bony. Muscles may become rigid with age and may lose tone, even with regular exercise. Loss of muscle mass reduces strength which contributes to fatigue, weakness, and reduced activity tolerance. Exercise is one of the best ways to slow or prevent problems with the muscles, joints, and bones....
SECRETORY CAUSES Secretory diarrheas are due to derangements in fluid and electrolyte transport across the enterocolonic mucosa. They are characterized clinically by watery, large-volume fecal outputs that are typically painless and persist with fasting. Because there is no malabsorbed solute, stool osmolality is accounted for by normal endogenous electrolytes with no fecal osmotic gap.
Side effects from regular ingestion of drugs and toxins are the most common secretory causes of chronic diarrhea.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Treatment The major abnormality in patients with PCOS is the failure of regular, predictable ovulation. Thus, these patients are at risk for the development of dysfunctional bleeding and endometrial hyperplasia associated with unopposed estrogen exposure. Endometrial protection can be achieved with the use of oral contraceptives or progestins (medroxyprogesterone acetate, 5–10 mg, or prometrium, 200 mg daily for 10–14 days of each month).
Normalization of tumor blood vessels due to inhibition of VEGF signaling.
A. Blood vessels in normal tissues exhibit a regular hierarchical branching pattern that delivers blood to tissues in a spatially and temporally efficient manner to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue (top). At the microscopic level, tight junctions are maintained between endothelial cells (EC), which are adherent to a thick and evenly distributed basement membrane (BM). Pericytes form a surrounding layer that provides trophic signals to the EC and helps maintain proper vessel tone.
Clinical Features, Treatment, and Prognosis of Specific Lymphoid Malignancies
Precursor Cell B Cell Neoplasms
Precursor B Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma
The most common cancer in childhood is B cell ALL. Although this disorder can also present as a lymphoma in either adults or children, presentation as lymphoma is rare.
The malignant cells in patients with precursor B cell lymphoblastic leukemia are most commonly of pre-B cell origin.
For all classes of antidepressants, people must take regular
doses for at least 3 to 4 weeks, sometimes longer, before
they are likely to experience a full effect. They should
continue taking the medication for an amount of time
speciied by their doctor, even if they are feeling better, to
prevent a relapse of the depression. he decision to stop
taking medication should be made by the person and her
doctor together, and should be done only under the doc
tor’s supervision. Some medications need to be gradually
stopped to give the body time to adjust.
In the 1990s the
overall rate of decline was somewhat higher than in the 1980s. Trends in annual
death rates by gender from 1981 to 1998 for three age groups of the old are shown
in Figure 2. Mortality for males in each age group shows a fairly regular decline
during the 20 years. For females in some age groups, the early 1980s were not
even a period of decline. This differential trend by gender is almost the opposite of
what occurred in the 1970s when females experienced greater decline than males.
Accessibility is a key ingredient of well-being and prosperity in contemporary societies.
The ability of individuals, families, entrepreneurs and firms to exchange goods and services, to be
where activities are being carried out, and to interact with people on a regular basis is crucial not
only to economic life but also to the quality of life. With the growth of economic and social
networks over the course of the past two centuries, and t he spatial dispersion of activities,
transportation has become a vital part of the systems providing access to those activities.