In muscle forms as cytosolic granules with a diameter of 10 to 40 nm - the same as the size of ribosome.
Concentration (liver cells) concentration (muscle cells)
Total amount of glycogen in muscle cells in the liver.
In the uterus, glycogen is stored during pregnancy to nourish the embryo.
In vagina, glycogen is secreted and then converted into lactic acid to maintain the acidic environment in order to protect vagina from outside bacteria infections.
In kidneys, brain and white blood cells....
At an international Consensus Conference held
in 1991 at the offices of the International Olympic
Committee in Lausanne, a small group of experts
conducted a comprehensive review of the available
information and concluded that ‘Diet significantly
influences athletic performance’. This
statement is unequivocal: what we eat and drink,
how much we consume and when it is consumed
can all have positive or negative effects on performance
in training and in competition.
Stimulation of glycogen-targeted protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity by
insulin contributes to the dephosphorylation and activation of hepatic gly-cogen synthase (GS) leading to an increase in glycogen synthesis. The gly-cogen-targeting subunits of PP1, GLand R5⁄PTG, are downregulated in
the livers of diabetic rodents and restored by insulin treatment. We show
here that the mammalian genePPP1R3Eencodes a novel glycogen-target-ing subunit of PP1 that is expressed in rodent liver.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is inactivated by insulin
and lithium and, like insulin, Li also activates glycogen
synthase (GS)viainhibition of GSK3. Li also mimics insu-lin’s ability to stimulate glucose transport (GT), an obser-vation that has led to the suggestion that GSK3 may
coordinate hormonal increases in GT and glycogen synthe-sis. Here we have used Li and SB-415286, a selective GSK3
inhibitor, to establish the importance of GSK3 in the hor-monal activation of GT in terms of its effect on GS in L6
myotubes and3T3-L1adipocytes. ...
The Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain serine⁄threonine kinase PASKIN, or PAS
kinase, links energy flux and protein synthesis in yeast, regulates glycogen
synthesis and protein translation in mammals, and might be involved in
insulin regulation in the pancreas.
14-3-3 Proteins are dimeric phophoserine-binding molecules that participate
in important cellular processes such as cell proliferation, cell-cycle control
and the stress response. In this work, we report that several isoforms of
14-3-3s are expressed in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. To understand their
function, we utilized a general 14-3-3 peptide inhibitor, R18, to disrupt
14-3-3 functions in cardiomyocytes.