The deployment of ‘new’ environmental policy instruments (NEPIs), namely
eco-taxes and other market-based instruments (MBIs), voluntary agreements
(VAs) and informational devices such as eco-labels, has grown spectacularly in
recent years. In 1987, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) [OECD, 1994:177] reported that most national
environmental policies still relied upon a regulatory or ‘command and control’
mode of action, but since then the number of MBIs has grown ‘substantially’
Governments establish regulations to protect the safety
and health of their citizens, to manage their environment
and resources, and to ensure national security.
Citizens benefit from regulations that provide protection
AND facilitate market development, technology diffusion,
and business investment.
This Manual is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 contains background information on the
reasons for regulating emissions from wood furniture manufacturing including a brief regulatory
perspective, an overview of the health effects of the five solvents used in the largest quantities,
sources of emissions from a typical wood furniture manufacturing facility, and a summary of the
new federal wood furniture regulations. Chapter 2 defines pollution prevention (P2) and discusses
the elements of a successful P2 program.
The ultimate responsibility for prudential standard-setting and supervision for Tier 1
FHCs must rest with a single regulator. The public has a right to expect that a clearly
identifiable entity, not a committee of multiple agencies, will be answerable for setting
standards that will protect the financial system and the public from risks posed by the
potential failure of Tier 1 FHCs.
Here’s an example
A group of language schools was unhappy with its system
for issuing end-of-course certificates. These tended simply
to record the level of the class attended and didn’t give
information about real-life communicative competence or
individual progress or achievement. They had a vision of a
coherent system of clearly described levels, of interesting
communicative kinds of assessment recorded in a
certificate which would show – in language accessible to
everybody – the learners’ language competence.
Financial sector reforms and the adoption of a more predictable currency system spurred a recovery of the financial sector in 2009. Total deposits in the banking system rose from US$500 million in 2009 to some US$2.5 billion by December 2010. Important vulnerabilities remain6. The Banking sector is highly illiquid, with the bulk of bank lending being short term (90 days or less) with longer-term loans virtually nonexistent. Moreover, the intermediation spread is extremely high with prohibitive lending rates of as high as 30 percent and deposit rates of as low as 2 percent....
The performance of current transport systems is inadequate when viewed in
terms of economic efficiency, sustainability, and safety. Towards Better Performing
Transport Networks examines the tools that are necessary to effectively
measure these systems and those that are required to improve them.
Utilising advanced tools of network analysis, the contributors challenge
various pieces of conventional wisdom and in particular the view that intermodal
transport is more environmentally benign than road transport.
In 2003, to support efforts at the state level to reduce youth exposure to alcohol marketing, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and
Youth (CAMY) issued a report on state advertising laws.
19 It identified key state regulatory strategies that can be effective in reduc-
ing youth exposure to alcohol advertising, assessed state practices, and reviewed each state’s law. The report was designed to pro-
vide a means for each state to evaluate priorities for enforcement and statutory and regulatory reform.
he Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, the House
Committee on Foreign Affairs, the House Committee on Energy
and Commerce, the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, and
the House Subcommittee on International Development, Finance,
and Monetary Policy requested an assessment of energy and environmental
technology transfer to Central Europe and the former Soviet
Union. The intent was to determine how U.S. energy technology can help
resolve the economic and environmental problems in the region....
Paleontologists estimate that 99% of all species that ever existed have vanished
from the planet. To understand the process of extinction, paleontologists have
measured the lifetime of species—especially species that leave lots of fossils
behind. Mollusks (a group of invertebrates that includes snails and clams) leave
some of the most complete fossil records of any animal.
Michael Foote, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago, and his col-
leagues inventoried fossils of mollusks that lived in the ocean around New Zealand
over the past 43 million years.
The role for Congress in this financial crisis is multifaceted. While the recent focus has been on
combating the recession, the ultimate issue perhaps is how to ensure the smooth and efficient
functioning of financial markets to promote the general well-being of the country while
protecting taxpayer interests and facilitating business operations without creating a moral hazard.
Governments also need to focus on medium to long-term actions to strengthen innovation. A
broad range of policy reforms will be needed in OECD countries and non-OECD economies to
respond to the changing nature of the innovation process and strengthen innovation performance to
foster sustainable growth and address key global challenges.
Within developing countries, health sector reform, often including decen-
tralized priority setting, increases the information and advocacy burden for
inclusion of SRH concerns. Central functions (like operating logistic systems
and service quality control) require high-level commitment and a supportive
policy and regulatory framework.
The international discussion on SRH emphasizes an outcome-oriented
public health approach but people react to multiple dimensions. Strong pas-
sions and intensive debates continue on a range of issues: abortion, adolescent
SRH and even family planning.
Nevertheless, a first assessment of the report leads us to reiterate our doubts about the need
for further regulatory reforms for the banking industry. The ESBG is of the opinion that
there is an excess of financial regulation taking place that might result in an excessive and
inflexible regulation, and in many cases will lead to overlaps between the different
regulations, as well as unintentional consequences.
Policymaking to deal with the global financial crisis and ensuing global recession has now moved
from containing the contagion to specific actions aimed at promoting recovery and changing
regulations to prevent a reoccurrence of the problem. Other issues, such as health care and the
war in Afghanistan, also are competing for attention. Some have expressed concern that the
improving economic and financial outlook may cause regulatory reform of the financial system to
lose some traction in the crowded policy agenda.
The island of Venice has been sinking perceptibly for centuries, but recent news is that
global warming is likely to accelerate the cataclysm that will take the city below a viable
water level in the lagoon. A possible parallel may be drawn with the unwritten British
constitution that some reformers have long been threatening to abandon, but which
continues to be the basis of a rather unusual system of government, one that is often
visited and sometimes admired by constitutional tourists from other countries.
The Government of Indonesia also formulated several regulations for sector specific PPPs, such
as in the energy and water sectors, to provide information for private business entities, refer to
the annex section for the list of PPP regulations. Deregulation and debottlenecking are therefore
seen as a vital precursor for PPP projects to be implemented in Indonesia.
Despite the improvement in regulatory reform, however the state budget is considered
insufficient to fund the required levels of investment.
While improved urban environmental management
is important, the studies also show that given the
additional costs linked with climate change, cities
need to make a proactive effort to consider climate-
related risks as an integral part of urban planning
and to do so now. First, city planners need to de-
velop strategic urban adaptation frameworks for
managing climate risks involving a range of tools
such as policy and regulatory reforms, investments,
and capacity building.
Chapter 3 - How securities are traded. This chapter has been largely rewritten to reflect the ongoing transformation of trading practices, the growing dominance of electronic trading, the accelerating consolidation of securities markets, and continuing regulatory reform, in particular the response to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
Regulators to date have opted for a relatively "non-interventionist" approach to
environmental accounting reform. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, for instance,
through surveys and case studies, has identified weaknesses in private sector environmental
accounting and promotes the diffusion of accounting "best practices." This outreach- and
communication-based approach may be expanded upon in the future, however. There
currently are calls from some environmental advocates for more aggressive regulatory actions
in this area, such as mandated environmental accounting.