Ozone (O3) is well documented as the air pollutant most damaging to
agricultural crops and other plants. Most crops in developed countries are grown in
summer when O3 concentrations are elevated and frequently are sufficiently high to
reduce yields. This article examines the difficulties in scientifically determining the
reduction in yield that results from the exposure of agricultural crops to surface O3 and
then transforming that knowledge into efficient and effective regulatory standards.
The Committee believes that a successful implementation of the revised Framework will provide banks and supervisors with critical experience necessary to address such challenges. The Committee understands that the IRB approach represents a point on the continuum between purely regulatory measures of credit risk and an approach that builds more fully on internal credit risk models. In principle, further movements along that continuum are foreseeable, subject to an ability to address adequately concerns about reliability, comparability, validation, and competitive equity.......
This paper addresses issues in financial sector regulation from two perspectives. First, it reports on the state of implementation of financial regulatory standards across banking, insurance, and securities sectors in a select group of Fund member countries. Second, it raises issues relating to the design of these three sector standards, arising from the implementation experience and the evolving structure of financial systems. In this regard, the paper identifies a few emerging regulatory risks and some cross-sectoral issues that may warrant further guidance by standard setters....
The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) is an international, non-profit trade association dedicated
to advancing environmentally and socially responsible aquaculture.
The Alliance was founded in 1997 with 59 members in the Americas, Europe and Asia. It now
comprises 1100 members in 70 countries and has become the most prominent industry
organization representing the global aquaculture business (www.gaalliance.org).
The Committee believes that a successful implementation of the revised Framework will provide banks and supervisors with critical experience necessary to address such challenges. The Committee understands that the IRB approach represents a point on the continuum between purely regulatory measures of credit risk and an approach that builds more fully on internal credit risk models. In principle, further movements along that continuum are foreseeable, subject to an ability to address adequately concerns about reliability, comparability, validation, and competitive equity....
Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S.
Standard method of test for particle size analysis of soils describes a procedure for the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils. The following applies to all specified limits in this standard: For the purposes of determining conformance with these specifications, an observed value or a calculated value shall be rounded off “to the nearest unit” in the last right-hand place of figures used in expressing the limiting value, in accordance with ASTM E 29. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.
In the UK, the financial regulatory framework under the UK Financial
Services and Markets Act 2000 (FSMA)
requires banks and other authorised
financial firms to establish internal systems of control, compliance, and reporting for
senior management and other key personnel. Under FSMA, the Financial Services
Authority (FSA) has the power to review and sanction banks and financial firms
regarding the types of internal control and compliance systems they adopt.
In this chapter you will: Understand the roles and responsibilities of regulators and standard setters, provide an overview of fundamental provisions of SOX and their impacts, provide an overview of the evaluation of SOX (cost and benefits), understand why the SEC was established, provide an overview of the primary functions of the PCAOB,...
Significant changes in the environmental field have required a re-evaluation of the environmental
protection programs in place around the world. Although reductions in pollution levels have been
realized in certain areas, necessary expectations for environmental protection have not been met
in spite of extensive regulatory programs and cost expenditures. This book examines new
approaches to environmental protection, including the emerging field of international environmental
law and environmental management systems...
Edited by Rajnish Mehra, this volume focuses on the equity risk premium puzzle, a term coined by Mehra and Prescott in 1985 which encompasses a number of empirical regularities in the prices of capital assets that are at odds with the predictions of standard economic theory.This handbook is indispensable for any serious assessment of the state of the art on the famous equity premium puzzle.
Food safety is of great importance to consumers. To
ensure the safety of the food supply and to facilitate
international trade, government agencies and international
bodies establish standards, guidelines, and regulations that
food producers and trade partners need to meet, respect,
and follow. A primary goal of national and international
regulatory frameworks for the use of veterinary drugs,
including antimicrobials, in food-producing animals is to
ensure that authorized products are used in a manner
that will not lead to non-compliance residues.
Content: The role of accounting, the regulatory framework, the conceptual framework of accounting, accounting standards and concepts, elements of financial statements and their recognition criteria, alternative methods of valuation, alternative theories of accounting, reporting and disclosure of performance.
many groups and individuals have been motivated to consider the potential for producing ethanol. Across the
country, farmer cooperatives, rural development coalitions, bio-energy advocates and others have gathered to
explore the process and prospects for developing ethanol production facilities. In many cases these efforts have
resulted in the successful development of ethanol plants.
Because of improvements in air quality, such
deadly air pollution episodes are rare in U.S. cities.
Modern research methods have shown, however,
that deaths and serious illnesses from common
air pollutants still occur at levels well below
regulatory standards, and at current levels in
New York and most large cities. Local actions to
further reduce air pollution will mean changes in
policies and behaviors, and will require significant
investments in new vehicles and other equipment.
In this paper we show that nontraded goods (in ¯nal consumption and in retail services)
play an important role in exchange rate behavior in the context of an otherwise standard
open-economy macro model. In our model, nontraded goods have an important role even
though °uctuations in the relative price of nontraded goods account for a small proportion
of real exchange rate °uctuations.
Our quantitative study with nontraded goods generates
implications along several dimensions that are more closely in line with the data relative to
the model that abstracts from nontraded goods.
To help you have more documents to serve the needs of learning and research, invite you to consult the document content paper P7 "Advanced Audit and Assurance - Study text 2016" below. Content document provides information about: Regulatory and ethical trameword, accounting standards, group financial statememts, developments in reporting. Hope content useful document serves the learning needs and work effectively.
The terms codes and standards are almost synonymous; they have essentially the same meaning. They are different in that codes are usually requirements imposed by regulatory authorities, whereas standards are consensus documents adopted voluntarily by organizations with a common interest in a technology, product, or practice.
While a significant number of nations have adopted or accepted IFRS, in order
to achieve the true benefits of a uniform set of accounting standards, it is
important that IFRS is adopted by nations in a manner consistent with those
issued by the IASB. In addition, it is equally important that they are applied and
enforced in a consistent manner. Therefore, there must also be a mechanism to
ensure that auditing standards and the practices of auditors facilitate consistent
application of IFRS. Similarly, over time there must be improved coordination
of global regulatory review.
The ultimate responsibility for prudential standard-setting and supervision for Tier 1
FHCs must rest with a single regulator. The public has a right to expect that a clearly
identifiable entity, not a committee of multiple agencies, will be answerable for setting
standards that will protect the financial system and the public from risks posed by the
potential failure of Tier 1 FHCs.