Xem 1-20 trên 60 kết quả Relative molecular
  • From this Chapter we will study thermal properties of matter, that is what means the terms “hot” or “cold”, what is the difference between “heat” and “temparature”, and the laws relative to these concepts. We will know that the thermal phenomena are determined by internal motions of molecules inside a matter. There exists a form of energy which is called thermal energy, or “heat”, which is the total energy of all molecular motions, or internal energy.

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  • Puroindoline proteins were purified from selected UK-grown hexaploid wheats. Their identities were confirmed on the basis of capillary electro-phoresis mobilities, relative molecular mass and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Only one form of puroindoline-a protein was found in those varieties, regardless of endosperm texture. Three allelic forms of puroindo-line-b protein were identified.

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  • The exocyclic hydroxymethyl group of the -D-1-amino-1-deoxyglucopyranose can rotate around the carbon-carbon bond. Potential energy surface for this rotation has been investigated using ab initio quantum chemical methods. Relevant stationary points, including for the first time rotational transition states have been characterized by full geometry optimization using basis sets 6-31G(d) and 6-31G(2d,lp). There is a total of six stationary points along the hydroxymethyl rotational surface, including three minima and three transition states were identified.

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  • Plant response to reduced water availability and other abiotic stress (e.g. metals) have been analysed through changes in water absorption and transport mechanisms and also by molecular and genetic approach. A relatively new aspects of fruit nutrition are presented in order to provide the basis for the improvement of some fruit quality traits. The involvement of hormones, nutritional and proteomic plant profiles together with some structure/function of sexual components have also been addressed.

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  • It is my privilege to contribute the foreword for this unique volume entitled: “Plant Tissue Culture Engineering,” edited by S. Dutta Gupta and Y. Ibaraki. While there have been a number of volumes published regarding the basic methods and applications of plant tissue and cell culture technologies, and even considerable attention provided to bioreactor design, relatively little attention has been afforded to the engineering principles that have emerged as critical contributions to the commercial applications of plant biotechnologies.

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  • This book provides an example of the successful and rapid expansion of bioengineering within the world of the science. It includes a core of studies on bioengineering technology applications so important that their progress is expected to improve both human health and ecosystem. These studies provide an important update on technology and achievements in molecular and cellular engineering as well as in the relatively new field of environmental bioengineering.

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  • Flow cytometry is a technology that simultaneously measures and analyses multiple physical characteristics of single particles, usually cells, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include a particle’s relative size (represented by forward angle light scatter), relative granularity or internal complexity (represented by right-angle scatter), and relative fluorescence intensity.

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  • This book provides an example of the successful and rapid expansion of bioengineering within the world of the science. It includes a core of studies on bioengineering technology applications so important that their progress is expected to improve both human health and ecosystem. These studies provide an important update on technology and achievements in molecular and cellular engineering as well as in the relatively new field of environmental bioengineering.

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  • The past three decades have witnessed a steadily increasing awareness of the need to empower women through measures to increase social, economic and political equity, and broader access to fundamental human rights, improvements in nutrition, basic health and education. Along with awareness of the subordinate status of women has come the concept of gender as an overarching socio-cultural variable, seen in relation to other factors, such as race, class, age and ethnicity.

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  • and gait is mostly derived from studies that measured and reported EF as a composite score [12,18,19]. Relatively few studies have focused on the age-related deficits in specific components of executive function and most of these studies were based on a traditional set of tests of executive function, without detailing specific components. The conclusions drawn from these studies might, therefore, be limited by their methodologies. The putative executive measures might not load on a single executive construct, and might overlap with each other [20,21].

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  • As with the first edition, the primary purpose of this book is to describe human blood group antigens and their inheritance, the antibodies that define them, the structure and functions of the red cell membrane macromolecules that carry them, and the genes that encode them or control their biosynthesis. In addition, this book provides information on the clinical relevance of blood groups and on the importance of blood group antibodies in transfusion medicine in particular.

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  • A ‘textbook’ plant typically comprises about 85% water and 13.5% carbohy- drates. The remaining fraction contains at least 14 mineral elements, without which plants would be unable to complete their life cycles. These essential mineral elements include six macronutrients – N, K, P, S, Mg and Ca – which are present in relatively large amounts in plant tissues (mg g−1 of dry tissue), and several micronutrients, including Fe and Zn, which are present in smaller amounts (µg g−1 of dry tissue).

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  • Our setup allows us to disentan- gle the implications of these two alternative pricing mechanisms that are standard in the open-economy macro literature. In our model, di®erent assumptions regarding the pricing decisions of ¯rms are virtually inconsequential for the properties of aggregate variables, other than the terms of trade. In particular, the real exchange rate and the international relative price of ¯nal tradable goods behave similarly across the two price setting regimes.

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  • Retinoic acid and its relatives, natural products of vitamin A metabolism, have been discovered to be critical ligands for key receptors of the steroid receptor superfamily, such as the retinoic acid receptor and the RXR receptor. Vitamins and Hormones has not had a review of this important fatsoluble vitamin for some time, and it seemed important not only to touch on the modern aspects of the retinoic acid receptor and its relatives but also of the roles of vitamin A in development and diVerentiation as well as its activity in certain tissues and in disease states....

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  • The presence of nontraded goods in our model increases the relative volatility of nominal and real exchange rates relative to the volatility in the model without nontraded goods. An important aspect of the behavior of exchange rates in our model with nontraded goods hinges on the agent's inability to optimally share the risk associated with country-speci¯c shocks to productivity in the nontraded goods sector. In response to a (persistent) positive shock to productivity in this sector, agents wish to consume and invest more.

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  • Although technical advances have resulted in marked improvements in the ability to diag‐ nose and surgically treat primary and metastatic brain tumors, the incidence and mortality rates of these tumors is increasing. Particularly affected are young adults and the elderly. The present standard treatment modalities following surgical resection including cranial irradia‐ tion and systemic or local chemotherapy each have limited efficacy and serious adverse side effects.

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  • There was a movement out of US sovereign bonds, amid net outflows of €2.1 billion and negative revaluations of €3 billion, to close at €45 billion, or 5 per cent of all investments. These negative US revaluations in euro terms were partly driven by the euro depreciating by 2.8 per cent relative to the US dollar over Q1 2012. German government bonds experienced positive net inflows of €0.9 billion and account for €17.4 billion of bond assets, but holdings still remain low relative to UK and US government bond assets. Holdings of Spanish sovereign...

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  • The evolutionary origins of nectaries and nectar are relatively obscure, but several researchers, working on a broad scale on the evolution of angiosperm families, have provided overviews of nectary incidence, diversity, origin, and function. Two contrasting examples below show how concepts regarding the origin of nectaries and nectar have been modified in the light of new information. Firstly, in his outline of the classification of the angiosperms, Armen Takhtajan (1980) gives a simple, concise statement on the purpose and origin of nectaries:...

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  • These daily movements in the Portuguese long-term interest rates could reflect a risk premium. The EC recommendation clearly signalled to markets that Portuguese public finances were facing difficulties. Therefore, markets might have attributed additional risk to the government debt, demanding a higher interest rate to hold the long-term bonds. At the same time, the risk of private bonds might have decreased relatively to government bonds, since this EC recommendation was not seen as directly damaging this segment of the market.

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  • The differences in family structures are also confirmed by household statistics. Whereas single households have by now become the most frequent household size in some European agglomerations, they continue to be the exception in Mexico: Single households make up only 1.5% of all households in the 2000 population census (compared to 1.0% in 1990). While two thirds of all households consist of couples with or without children (or one parent with children), roughly one third of households include more persons (e.g. grandparents, other relatives etc; see Table 5).

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