This paper proposes a new class-based m e t h o d to estimate the strength of association in word co-occurrence for the purpose of structural disambiguation. To deal with sparseness of data, we use a conceptual dictionary as the source for acquiring upper classes of the words related in t h e co-occurrence, and then use t-scores to determine a pair of classes to be employed for calculating the strength of association. We have applied our m e t h o d to determining dependency relations in Japanese and prepositional phrase attachments in English. ...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học được đăng trên tạp chí toán học quốc tế đề tài: Dilemmas in the reliable estimation of the in-vitro cell viability in magnetic nanoparticle engineering: which tests and what protocols?
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Dilemmas in the reliable estimation of the in-vitro cell viability in magnetic nanoparticle engineering: which tests and what protocols?
Empirical studies on corpora involve making measurements of several quantities for the purpose of comparing corpora, creating language models or to make generalizations about speciﬁc linguistic phenomena in a language. Quantities such as average word length are stable across sample sizes and hence can be reliably estimated from large enough samples. However, quantities such as vocabulary size change with sample size. Thus measurements based on a given sample will need to be extrapolated to obtain their estimates over larger unseen samples. ...
It is important to explore score reliability in virtually all studies, because tests are not reliable. The present paper explains the most frequently used reliability estimate, coefficient alpha, so that the coefficient's conceptual underpinnings will be understood. Researchers need to understand score reliability because of the possible impact reliability has on the interpretation of research results. There are several common misconceptions about the basic ideas of score reliability.
Research objectives: Estimating the size of populations high risk to HIV (people who inject drug, female sex workers) applying different methods in Can Tho in 2012-2013; assessing reliability and feasibility of a number of methods to estimate the size of high risk to HIV populations.
What would science be without measurement, and what would social
science be without social measurement? Social measurement belongs
to the widely accepted and fruitful stream of the empirical-analytic
approach. Statistics and research methodology play a central role, and
it is difficult to ascertain precisely when it all started in the social
sciences. An important subfield of social measurement is the quantification
of human behavior—that is, using measurement instruments
of which educational and psychological tests are the most prominent
The (estimated) number of angel investors active both within networks and on an independent
basis (individual activity or in syndicates) is estimated to be around 75k in Europe (EBAN, 2010c);
the corresponding figure for the US is 259k. Often Business Angels in the US are “Serial Angels” -
this means they invest regularly.
In terms of overall investment, the amount invested by angels annually is EUR 3 to 5bn in the EU
(invested into approx. 2800 companies (2009 data)), compared to USD 20.1bn (approx. EUR
14.9bn) in the US (invested into 61,900 companies (Sohl, 2011)).
Provisions are recognized when the Group has a present obligation as a result of a past event, it
is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable
estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation.This obligation may be legal or
constructive, deriving from inter alia regulations, contracts, normal practices or public
commitments that lead third parties to reasonably expect that the Group will assume certain
This interpretation establishes that:(i) when the terms of a financial liability are
renegotiated with the creditor and the creditor accepts the company’s equity instruments to
extinguish all or part of the liability, the instruments issued are considered to be part of the
consideration paid to extinguish the financial liability; (ii) these instruments must be
measured at their fair value, unless this cannot be reliably estimated, in which case the
valuation of the new instruments must reflect the fair value of the financial liability settled;
and (iii) the difference between the ca...
For small join tables, REED always chooses to push
them into the network if their selectivity is smaller than
one. For intermediate tables, the REED query optimizer
makes a decision as to whether to push the join into the
network based on the estimated selectivity of the predicate
(which may be learned from past performance or gathered
statistics, or estimated using basic query optimization tech-
niques ) and the average depth of sensor nodes in the
Second, we reestimate our baseline specification while adding control variables, ranging
from initial fiscal and current account balances to initial bank credit risk and household debt
levels. These could plausibly have both affected the growth forecast error and been correlated
with fiscal consolidation forecasts. Not controlling for such factors could influence the
estimated relation between fiscal consolidation forecasts and growth forecast errors. We find,
however, that our results are robust to the introduction of such controls.
Differential evolution is one of the most recent global optimizers. Discovered
in 1995 it rapidly proved its practical efficiency. This book gives you a chance
to learn all about differential evolution. On reading it you will be able to
profitably apply this reliable method to problems in your field.
As for me, my passion for intelligent systems and optimization began as far
back as during my studies at Moscow State Technical University of Bauman,
the best engineering school in Russia. At that time, I was gathering material
for my future thesis.
This issue also comes up with the valuation of difficult to estimate insurance liabilities.
While a value may be estimable by an actuary, how reliable is that estimate? Can the user
depend on that value, or could the user instead be materially misled by relying on that
value? If a range of estimates could be produced, but only the low end of the possible
valuation range could be reliably determined, booking the low end of the range may pro-
duce a reliable estimate but how relevant would it be? Would more disclosure be required
to make the...
This raises the issue of the measurement of the informal sector, which is known to be substantial in
transition and developing countries. In the former Soviet Union countries it is estimated to contribute
between 20 and 40 per cent of GDP. Even in the European Union (EU) there is considerable informal activity:
in Italy, for example, it has been estimated to contribute between 10 and 20 per cent of GDP. It has been
estimated that the informal sector contributes some nine trillion ‘undetected’ dollars to global GDP.
This study adds to the emerging literature examining empirically the link between
population size, other demographic factors and pollution. We contribute by using
more reliable estimation techniques and examine two air pollutants. By considering
sulfur dioxide, we become the first study to explicitly examine the impact of
demographic factors on a pollutant other than carbon dioxide at the cross-national
level. We also take into account the urbanization rate and the average household
size neglected by many prior cross-national econometric studies.
School location influences travel distance, which in turn influences travel behavior
(McDonald, 2005; 2008; McMillan, 2005; McMillan et al, 2006). School commuting
via walking and bicycling decreased from 41% in 1969 to 13% in 2003, with the largest
decreases among nonwhite elementary students; roughly half (47%) of the decline was
explained by the increased distance between home and school (McDonald, 2008).
Changes in the school-age population, including race and child age, and changing
attitudes towards school travel likely explain some of the decline as well.
We use heterogeneity in the timing of television’s introduction to different local
markets to identify the effect of preschool television exposure on standardized
test scores during adolescence. Our preferred point estimate indicates that an
additional year of preschool television exposure raises average adolescent test
scores by about 0.02 standard deviations. We are able to reject negative effects
larger than about 0.03 standard deviations per year of television exposure.
Medicaid Services (CMS) under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act
(CLIA). The objective of the CLIA program is to ensure quality laboratory
testing by establishing standards for accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of
patient test results. A laboratory is defined as any facility that tests
specimens derived from humans for the assessment of health or the
diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease.
CLIA regulations, published in 1992, are based on the complexity of the test
method; thus, the more complicated the test, the more stringent the
Information about the topology and link-level characteristics
of a network is critical for many applications including
network diagnostics and management. However, this information
is not always directly accessible; subnetworks may not cooperate
in releasing information and widespread local measurement
can be prohibitively expensive. Network tomographic techniques
obviate the need for network cooperation, but the majority
assume probing from a single source, which imposes scalability
limitations because sampling traffic is concentrated on network
links close to the source.