Renal disease

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  • .Pathophysiology and Clinical Aspects of Venous Thromboembolism in Neonates, Renal Disease and Cancer Patients Edited by Mohammed A. Abdelaal Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2012 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications....

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  • Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an irreversible deterioration of renal function that gradually progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CKD has emerged as a serious public health problem.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Relationship between anti-dsDNA, anti-nucleosome and anti-alpha-actinin antibodies and markers of renal disease in patients with lupus nephritis: a prospective longitudinal study...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Serum levels of autoantibodies against C-reactive protein correlate with renal disease activity and response to therapy in lupus nephritis...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Cystic fibrosis and renal disease: a case report...

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  • Renal disease is amajor cause ofmorbidity andmortality. Pediatric patients with renal disease, especially younger onesmay present with nonspecific signs and symptoms unrelated to the urinary tract. Pediatricians, therefore, should be familiar with the modes of presentation of renal disease and should have a high index of suspicion of these conditions.

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  • Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The diagnosis, management, and treatment of cardiac disease in ESRD remain a difficult problem for clinicians. In 1982, Love and co-authors published “Cardiac Surgery in Patients with Chronic Renal Disease’’ which compiled the latest and best treatment options at that time.

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  • White Lesions In calcinosis cutis there are firm white to white-yellow papules with an irregular surface. When the contents are expressed, a chalky white material is seen. Dystrophic calcification is seen at sites of previous inflammation or damage to the skin. It develops in acne scars as well as on the distal extremities of patients with scleroderma and in the subcutaneous tissue and intermuscular fascial planes in DM. The latter is more extensive and is more commonly seen in children.

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  • Also systemic. f In adults, associated with renal failure and immunocompromised state. Vesicles and bullae are also seen in contact dermatitis, both allergic and irritant forms (Chap. 53). When there is a linear arrangement of vesicular lesions, an exogenous cause should be suspected. Bullous disease secondary to the ingestion of drugs can take one of several forms, including phototoxic eruptions, isolated bullae, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) (Chap. 56).

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  • Several metabolic disorders are associated with blister formation, including diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and porphyria. Local hypoxia secondary to decreased cutaneous blood flow can also produce blisters, which explains the presence of bullae over pressure points in comatose patients (coma bullae). In diabetes mellitus, tense bullae with clear viscous fluid arise on normal skin. The lesions can be as large as 6 cm in diameter and are located on the distal extremities. There are several types of porphyria, but the most common form with cutaneous findings is PCT.

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  • Pathogenesis The multicentric nature of the disease and high rate of recurrence has led to the hypothesis of a field defect in the urothelium that results in a predisposition to cancer. Molecular genetic analyses suggest that the superficial and invasive lesions develop along distinct molecular pathways in which primary tumorigenic aberrations precede secondary changes associated with progression to a more advanced stage.

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  • There is no direct gold standard evidence or specific UK or European consensus guidelines for monitoring the growth of children with moderate to severe renal disease. This document therefore aims to define minimum standards for measuring and monitoring growth in children with CKD, based on local expert opinion, international committee reports, and indirectly supportive peer-reviewed clinical trials and reviews.

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  • Invasive Disease The treatment of a tumor that has invaded muscle can be separated into control of the primary tumor and, depending on the pathologic findings at surgery, systemic chemotherapy. Radical cystectomy is the standard, although in selected cases a bladder-sparing approach is used; this approach includes complete endoscopic resection; partial cystectomy; or a combination of resection, systemic chemotherapy, and external beam radiation therapy. In some countries, external beam radiation therapy is considered standard.

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  • Metastatic Disease The primary goal of treatment for metastatic disease is to achieve complete remission with chemotherapy alone or with a combined-modality approach of chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual disease, as is done routinely for the treatment of germ cell tumors. One can define a goal in terms of cure or palliation on the basis of the probability of achieving a complete response to chemotherapy using prognostic factors, such as Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) (...

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  • Renal Cell Carcinoma Renal cell carcinomas account for 90–95% of malignant neoplasms arising from the kidney. Notable features include resistance to cytotoxic agents, infrequent responses to biologic response modifiers such as interleukin (IL) 2, and a variable clinical course for patients with metastatic disease, including anecdotal reports of spontaneous regression. Epidemiology The incidence of renal cell carcinoma continues to rise and is now nearly 51,000 cases annually in the United States, resulting in 13,000 deaths. The male to female ratio is 2:1.

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  • Cushing’s disease is rare in children and adolescents. We report the clinical presenta- tions of three children with Cushing’s disease. All three exhibited the typical symptoms and signs of weight gain and growth retardation. Two also demonstrated personality changes, hypertension and hypokalemia, the last of these being rarely reported in patients with Cushing’s disease. Lack of diurnal changes in serum cortisol levels was the most common biochemical finding.

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  • Renal Cell Carcinoma: Treatment Localized Tumors The standard management for stage I or II tumors and selected cases of stage III disease is radical nephrectomy. This procedure involves en bloc removal of Gerota's fascia and its contents, including the kidney, the ipsilateral adrenal gland, and adjacent hilar lymph nodes. The role of a regional lymphadenectomy is controversial. Extension into the renal vein or inferior vena cava (stage III disease) does not preclude resection even if cardiopulmonary bypass is required.

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  • It has been reported worldwide that health problems caused by environmental pollution disproportionately affect unborn babies and small children. It is also known that children go through some developmental phases that are highly sensitive to certain pollutants. When unborn and small children go through physical and mental development, different organs develop at different times, and as such, some organs are more sensitive than others to certain materials during certain developmental phases.

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  • An unusually large number of people sickened by a disease in a certain place and time is known as a ‘disease cluster’. Clusters of cancer, birth defects, and other chronic illnesses have sometimes been linked to chemicals or other toxic pollutants in local communities, although these links can be controversial. There is a need for better documentation and investigation of disease clusters to identify and address possible causes.

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  • CKD in children is the result of heterogeneous  diseases  of  the  kidney  and  urinary  tract  that  range from common congenital malformations  of  the  urinary  tract,  to  rare  inborn  errors  of  metabolism that affect kidney  function[1] . CKD  is  an  irreversible  condition  that  eventually  progresses  to end stage renal disease  (ESRD).  It is an important cause of morbidity and  mortality in children worldwide [2,3] .

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