(BQ) Part 2 book "Pathophysiology of disease - An introduction to clinical medicine" presents the following contents: Disorders of the adrenal medulla, disorders of the adrenal medulla, gastrointestinal disease, disorders of the exocrine pancreas, renal disease, disorders of the parathyroids & calcium & phosphorus metabolism, disorders of the endocrine pancreas,... Invite you to consult.
(BQ) Part 2 book "Pathophysiology of disease flashcards - 120 case based flashcard with Q&A" presents the following contents: Disorders of the adrenal medulla, gastrointestinal disease, renal disease, liver disease, disorders of the exocrine pancreas, disorders of the endocrine pancreas, thyroid disease, disorders of the adrenal cortex,...
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an irreversible deterioration of renal function that gradually progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CKD has emerged as a serious public health problem.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Relationship between anti-dsDNA, anti-nucleosome and anti-alpha-actinin antibodies and markers of renal disease in patients with lupus nephritis: a prospective longitudinal study...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Serum levels of autoantibodies against C-reactive protein correlate with renal disease activity and response to therapy in lupus nephritis...
(BQ) Part 2 book "Pathophysiology of disease flashcards" presents the following contents: Cardiovascular disorders heart disease, cardiovascular disorders - Vascular disease, disorders of the adrenal medulla, gastrointestinal disease, liver disease, disorders of the exocrine pancreas, renal disease, disorders of the endocrine pancreas,... Invite you to consult.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Atlas of dermatology in internal medicine" presents the following contents: Cutaneous manifestations of connective tissue diseases; cutaneous manifestations of pulmonary disease; cutaneous manifestations of renal disease; cutaneous manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases; cutaneous manifestations of common endocrine disease.
Renal disease is amajor cause ofmorbidity andmortality. Pediatric patients with renal disease, especially younger onesmay present
with nonspeciﬁc signs and symptoms unrelated to the urinary tract. Pediatricians, therefore, should be familiar with the modes of
presentation of renal disease and should have a high index of suspicion of these conditions.
Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in patients
with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The diagnosis, management,
and treatment of cardiac disease in ESRD remain a difficult problem for
clinicians. In 1982, Love and co-authors published “Cardiac Surgery in
Patients with Chronic Renal Disease’’ which compiled the latest and best
treatment options at that time.
White Lesions In calcinosis cutis there are firm white to white-yellow papules with an irregular surface. When the contents are expressed, a chalky white material is seen. Dystrophic calcification is seen at sites of previous inflammation or damage to the skin. It develops in acne scars as well as on the distal extremities of patients with scleroderma and in the subcutaneous tissue and intermuscular fascial planes in DM. The latter is more extensive and is more commonly seen in children.
Several metabolic disorders are associated with blister formation, including diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and porphyria. Local hypoxia secondary to decreased cutaneous blood flow can also produce blisters, which explains the presence of bullae over pressure points in comatose patients (coma bullae). In diabetes mellitus, tense bullae with clear viscous fluid arise on normal skin. The lesions can be as large as 6 cm in diameter and are located on the distal extremities. There are several types of porphyria, but the most common form with cutaneous findings is PCT.
In adults, associated with renal failure and immunocompromised state.
Vesicles and bullae are also seen in contact dermatitis, both allergic and irritant forms (Chap. 53). When there is a linear arrangement of vesicular lesions, an exogenous cause should be suspected. Bullous disease secondary to the ingestion of drugs can take one of several forms, including phototoxic eruptions, isolated bullae, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) (Chap. 56).
The multicentric nature of the disease and high rate of recurrence has led to the hypothesis of a field defect in the urothelium that results in a predisposition to cancer. Molecular genetic analyses suggest that the superficial and invasive lesions develop along distinct molecular pathways in which primary tumorigenic aberrations precede secondary changes associated with progression to a more advanced stage.
The treatment of a tumor that has invaded muscle can be separated into control of the primary tumor and, depending on the pathologic findings at surgery, systemic chemotherapy. Radical cystectomy is the standard, although in selected cases a bladder-sparing approach is used; this approach includes complete endoscopic resection; partial cystectomy; or a combination of resection, systemic chemotherapy, and external beam radiation therapy. In some countries, external beam radiation therapy is considered standard.
The primary goal of treatment for metastatic disease is to achieve complete remission with chemotherapy alone or with a combined-modality approach of chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual disease, as is done routinely for the treatment of germ cell tumors. One can define a goal in terms of cure or palliation on the basis of the probability of achieving a complete response to chemotherapy using prognostic factors, such as Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) (...
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Renal cell carcinomas account for 90–95% of malignant neoplasms arising from the kidney. Notable features include resistance to cytotoxic agents, infrequent responses to biologic response modifiers such as interleukin (IL) 2, and a variable clinical course for patients with metastatic disease, including anecdotal reports of spontaneous regression.
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma continues to rise and is now nearly 51,000 cases annually in the United States, resulting in 13,000 deaths. The male to female ratio is 2:1.