This brochure in the AIGA Design Business and Ethics series provides
designers and other graphic communications professionals with an
introduction to design and print production practices that demonstrate
respect for the challenges of one of the truly critical issues of our age:
the balance between economic gain and environmental degradation.
For design to be responsive to a client’s needs, it should be responsible
and appropriate. Appropriateness, in the 21st century, will entail
respect for resource constraints....
Although some maize is consumed in the forest
zone, it is not a leading food staple and much of the crop
is sold. The major cash crop in the forest is cocoa. Annual
rainfall in the forest zone averages about 1,500 mm; maize
is planted both in the major rainy season (beginning in
March) and in the minor rainy season (beginning in
(3) Transition zone. Moving further north, the forest zone
gradually gives way to the transition zone.
This back-and-forth iteration in building a model is like sculpting: you are chipping
away a little bit here, and a little bit there, hoping to nd what's really inside that stubborn
block of marble. I choose the analogy with sculpting purposely: like sculpture most of the
work in building a model doesn't consist of adding things, it consists of subtracting them.
This is the most fun part of modeling, and it can be very exciting when the form of the
idea really begins to take shape. I normally walk around in a bit of a daze at this stage;
and I try not to get too...
Many childcare providers who care for children in their own homes have
pets. Pets can be excellent companions for children. Pets can meet
emotional needs of children for love and affection. Caring for pets also
gives children an opportunity to learn how to treat and be responsible for
others. However, some guidelines for protecting the health and safety of
the children should be followed. Delaware childcare licensing allows pets
if there is proof of rabies vaccination from each dog or cat 6-months or
older. Animals shall be free from disease and shall be cared...
This article reviews the current status of the market for catastrophic risk (CAT)
bonds and other risk-linked securities. CAT bonds and other risk-linked securities
are innovative financial vehicles that have an important role to play in financing
mega-catastrophes and other types of losses. The vehicles are especially
important because they access capital markets directly, exponentially expanding
risk-bearing capacity beyond the limited capital held by insurers and reinsurers.
In response to such changes we need a multifaceted, multi-agency
approach based on strengthening individuals, families and
communities, while at the same time improving the infrastructure and
access to services. Midwives and midwifery services have a particular
part to play in this. We could go a long way to achieving improvements
in health and social outcomes by giving more people, particularly
women and children, better life chances8.
A non–financial variable not specific to a party to the contract includes, for example,
an index of earthquake losses in a particular region and an index of temperatures in
a particular city. A non–financial variable specific to a party would be, for example,
the occurrence or non-occurrence of a fire that damages or destroys an asset of a
party to the contract.
The U.S. newspaper industry is suffering through what could be its worst financial crisis since the
Great Depression. Advertising revenues have plummeted due in part to the severe economic
downturn, while readership habits have changed as consumers turn to the Internet for free news
and information. Some major newspaper chains are burdened by heavy debt loads.
The Furniture Factory program is a proof-of-concept working prototype built to explore how to
help designers construct physical prototypes using rapid prototyping and manufacturing
machines. It provides a sketch-based design interface that a designer can use to draw furniture in
3-D. The design is then displayed in an isometric viewing window where the designer can view it
and edit it. The program then decomposes the 3-D model into flat panels that are displayed in the
The model describes the behaviour of consumers, which are heterogeneous in terms
of age, income and ¯nancial assets. They maximize the utility from consumption sub-
ject to the life-cycle budget constraint. Their savings are remunerated at the deposit
interest rate and the cost of borrowing is given by the lending rate. When young, con-
sumers work and receive wages that depend on an idiosyncratic, stochastic component
and a deterministic life-cycle pro¯le of productivity. When old, they are on a manda-
tory retirement and receive pensions.
We have defined and described different types of PMO that exist across various organisations, the
type of activity undertaken by these PMOs and the degree of influence they can have on key aspects
of project, programme and portfolio management.
To conclude, we would like to reinforce the fact that “Establishing a PMO is not a simple solution to
a complex problem”. Having a PMO does not, by itself, increase project success.
This study extends the existing empirical evidence, which suggests that the degree of bank competition
may have a significant effect on both the level of bank rates and on the pass-through of market rates to
bank interest rates. Understanding this pass-through mechanism is crucial for central banks. However,
most studies that analyse the relationship between competition and banks’ pricing behaviour apply a
concentration index such as the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) as a measure of competition. We
question the suitability of such indices as measures to capture competition.
From the epididymis, sperm move into the vas deferens, the begin-
ning of their pathway out of the body. As sperm move through the vas
deferens, a number of glands add ﬂuids. Sperm and these added ﬂuids
make up the semen. In fact, most of the semen is not sperm. Instead, it
consists mostly of fructose, a sugar that provides an additional source of
energy for the sperm. Prostaglandins are also found in the semen.
Prostaglandins are chemicals that cause muscle contractions to occur in
the female reproductive system. These contractions help move the sperm
toward the egg.
Given the well-estimated usual event model and an un-
seen test sequence, we ﬁrst slice the test sequence into ﬁxed
length segments with overlapping. This is done by mov-
ing a sliding window. The choice of the sliding window
size corresponds to the minimum duration constraint in the
HMM framework. Given the usual event model, the likeli-
hood of each segment is then calculated. The segment with
the lowest likelihood value is identiﬁed as an outlier (Figure
2, step 1). The outlier is expected to represent one speciﬁc
unusual event and could be used to train an unusual event
This study examines the relations between earnings informativeness, measured by the
earnings-return relation, and the ownership structure of 977 companies in seven East
Asian economies. Our results are consistent with two complementary explanations. First,
concentrated ownership and the associated pyramidal and cross-holding structures create
agency conflicts between controlling owners and outside investors. Consequently,
controlling owners are perceived to report accounting information for self-interested
purposes, causing the reported earnings to lose credibility to outside investors.
In this paper, we focus our attention on providing a
formal framework for expressing data mining tasks in-
volving time granularities, and on proposing efficient algo-
rithms for performing such tasks. To this end, we introduce
the notion of an event structure. An event structure is essen-
tially a set of temporal constraints on a set of variables
representing events. Each constraint bounds the distance
between a pair of events in terms of a time granularity.
Another well-known empirical fact is the predictability of stock returns by
variables that are informative about the business cycle.
1 The evidence suggests
that the equity premium is time varying, that is, it is higher at business cycle
troughs than at peaks. In an equilibrium asset pricing model, time variation
in the equity premium must be explained by time variation in the price or
quantity of risk.
A manager may be able to generate higher returns than
an OE benchmark before costs, yet after costs investors’ returns may
be below the benchmark. If a fund can beat the OE benchmark on
an after cost basis, we say that the fund adds value for investors, to
distinguish this situation from one where the manager has investment
ability, but either extracts the rents from this ability in the form of fees
and expenses, or dissipates it through trading costs. We will say that
a manager has investment ability if the managed portfolio outperforms
the OE portfolio on a before-cost basis.
State criminal codes and law enforcement approaches
State criminal codes address auto theft. About half of states distinguish motor
vehicle theft as a felony property crime, while a few designate it as grand theft or
larceny. In other states, auto theft can be charged under more general theft criminal
statutes. Many states cover unauthorized use of a motor vehicle in criminal law,
often with misdemeanor or lower felony penalties.