Auditors would be regulated under a system which mirrors that of the audit of companies with a role for the Financial Reporting Council and the professional audit bodies. We envisage that the National Audit Office will set the code of audit practice and we have put forward options for the scope of audit in the new framework. The consultation document also sets out how transparency will be increased in the new framework and our proposals for auditing smaller bodies with a turnover below £6.5m in a proportionate way.
In November 2004, building upon the recommendations established in the RSSS,
the CPSS and the Technical Committee of IOSCO published the Recommendations for
central counterparties (RCCP). The RCCP provided 15 recommendations that addressed the
major types of risks faced by CCPs. A methodology for assessing a CCP’s observance of
each recommendation was included in the report.
Power has been defined in a variety of different ways by sociologists and political
scientists so it behooves us to review those definitions before launching into an
exploration of the imagery of power. The simplest definition of power is an ability to get
others to do something that they would not otherwise have done. This is sometimes
referred to as power as “capabilities” or “potential” power and is measured in terms of
the attributes of the social actor that allegedly possesses it. An individual is powerful if
she is rich, well-educated, a member of a social elite, etc.
Currently, more than 120 nations and
reporting jurisdictions permit or require
IFRS for domestic listed companies. The
European Union (EU) requires companies
incorporated in its member states whose
securities are listed on an EU-regulated stock
exchange to prepare their consolidated
financial statements in accordance with
Australia, New Zealand and Israel have
essentially adopted IFRS as their national
Brazil started using IFRS in 2010.
Canada adopted IFRS, in full, on Jan. 1, 2011.
Eurostat proposes currently on its website datasets at NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels using
the new NUTS2006 territorial division. The problem is that most statistical data, even
the more basic data like population are actually not complete for all countries. In
particular, population is not available in countries where important changes has
occurred in the territorial delimitation of regions and the data elaborated in the
previous NUTS2003 division are no more available.
In discussing the Lisbon Strategy, we pose the following question: why has the
Lisbon Agenda only limited success? One reason may be the institutional
setting. The high priority that is given to fiscal and monetary stabilisation
policies is reflected in the existence of sanctions if the members of the Euro
Area do not meet the Maastricht criteria. In contrast, the low priority given to
the Lisbon strategy can be seen in the absence of institutions to enforce the
achievement of targets.
Our empirical ﬁndings are robust to controlling for individual ﬁxed-eﬀects, expe-
rience, year eﬀects, team, home ballpark characteristics, and managerial quality. The
inclusion of individual ﬁxed-eﬀects means that the results cannot be explained by assorta-
tive matching between complementary or substitutable players at the team level, since the
analysis is exploiting variation over time within a given player’s performance.
Achieving a high credit quality will also be important to ensure the acceptance of
Stability Bonds by all euro-area Member States. One key issue is how risks and gains are
distributed across Member States. In some forms, Stability Bonds would mean that Member
States with a currently below-average credit standing could obtain lower financing costs,
while Member States that already enjoy a high credit rating may even incur net losses, if the
effect of the pooling of risk dominated the positive liquidity effects.
Second, China is a developing country, and lacks strong purchasing power for foreign goods.
Expanding exports to China depends on the healthy development of Chinese economy and
the country's balance of payments situation. China' wool imports, for example, made a record
of NZ$ 522 million in 1988, then fell to a low of NZ$ 70 million in 1990 because of the
economic retrenchment in China, but subsequently recovered in 1991. Demand from China
depends very much on the domestic economy.
Third, some of New Zealand products are not fully suitable to the needs of China.
Treatment should be performed with the highest fluence the skin can tolerate. Studies have
shown that the percentage hair loss is fluence-dependent, with higher percentages of hair loss at
Each skin type has its own threshold fluence at which pigmentation changes occur. To mini-
mize hypo- or hyperpigmentation, lower fluences than those suggested above should be used
while gaining clinical experience. With multiple pulsing the incidence of pigment changes
increases without an increase in efficacy. For this reason, double and triple pulsing are not
Our empirical analysis of the cross-country determinants of bank fees is made
possible by the availability of a unique dataset on bank fee levels in five Central
European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.
The structure of our dataset enables us to cope with heterogeneity and cross-
subsidization by employing a representative fee index instead of using variables
associated with individual fees.
The socio-geographic region formed by these countries has several important
advantages for our purposes.
But let’s go back to 1999. When Roberts started working for PSI, she quickly realized
that she would face several challenges: she was young, she had little background in
public health, she had never worked for an NGO and she had just moved to the U.S.
where the working culture was very different than in Europe. Although she could see the
applicability of her marketing skills at PSI, she was fundamentally an outsider in the
highly technical and research-driven public health world. A few weeks into the job, it
was pretty clear that while she was inspired by the...
We choose the kinesins to illustrate similarities and
diﬀerences between protein family databases. Kinesin
and its relatives are motor proteins that utilize ATP
hydrolysis to move along microtubules in eukaryotic cells.
The motor portion of a kinesin is structurally very similar
to that of the myosin motor, which moves along actin
ﬁlaments, although no sequence similarity is evident
between them. This is an example of likely divergence
from an ancestral fold that is beyond current sequence-
based comparison methods to detect.
· Net benefit vs. user cost method of calculating depletion. These are two different
methods for estimating the depletion of natural capital. The net benefit method is much
simpler than the user cost method, and therefore has been used widely. It is considered
technically incorrect by economists; however, those who use it feel that despite its
inaccuracy it offers an acceptable proxy value for depletion.
· Inclusion of "maintenance costs." Maintenance costs are the expenditures that a country
would have to make in order for its use of the environment to be sustainable.
The question is whether this is also true for loans to small- and medium-sized enterprises
(SMEs). Proponents of public banks argue that only savings banks can guarantee the pro-
vision of loans to SMEs. Therefore, the Italian reforms may have impaired the availability
of SME loans. Furthermore, the reforms led to a consolidation wave, reducing the number
of banks from 1,088 in 1992 to 788 in 2003, and raising the average bank size from 1,014
million Euros in 1992 to 2,754 in 2003 (Engerer and Schrooten 2004, Körnert and Nolte
2005, OECD 2002).
All operating system vendors provide patches and updates to their products to correct security problems
and to improve functionality. Microsoft provides monthly patches on the second Tuesday of each month.
From time to time, Microsoft will issue an “off schedule” patch to respond to a particularly serious
threat. To update any supported version of Windows, go to “Start” and select “Windows Update” or
“Microsoft Update.” Follow the prompts to select and install the recommended patches. Other operating
system vendors have similar functionality.
It is important to allow enough time to work through the many issues that will
arise in the outcome management process. Don’t rush—it takes time to do it right!
The working group will almost certainly need many sessions to work through the
issues and questions that inevitably arise. Work by one or more of the working group
members may also be needed between formal meetings to help resolve specific
Exhibit 3 illustrates a schedule for the development of the system from the start
to use of the outcome data collected.
The Health Information System (HIS) in Mozambique is still facing numerous challenges
in terms of quality and use of data, mainly due to insufficient and poorly-trained health
workers, scarce financial resources, inadequate tools for data management and inadequate
supervision and feedback. The HIS represents a crucial area for development in health, as it
provides essential information for decision-makers, and is the source of data for half of the
indicators included in the M and E Performance Assessment Framework of the health sector.
Lean Thinking Brings Powerful Financial Incentives to Resource Conservation and Pollution
Prevention Improvement. Pollution prevention adherents often advocate a “pollution prevention
pays” theme to promote more sustainable production behavior. As well, pollution prevention
guidance encourages facilities to examine the total costs of polluting behavior to ensure investment
decisions are fairly and completely evaluated. This “Total Cost Assessment” approach, according
to advocates, can produce a strong business case (e.g.