In recent years the subject of computer programming has been recognized as a discipline whose mastery
is fundamental and crucial to the success of many engineering projects and which is amenable to
scientific treatement and presentation. It has advanced from a craft to an academic discipline. The initial
outstanding contributions toward this development were made by E.W. Dijkstra and C.A.R. Hoare.
This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of
women’s health and the array of factors that have played
a central role in shaping it. First, it presents a background
describing gender-based disparities in health care. It then
discusses the cultural context in which women have
been perceived by society, their representation in the
health care workforce, and the development of the medical
specialty of obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN), as
well as social, economic, and political forces that have
shaped the medical care provided to women....
COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS A bewildering array of subscriber unit options are available for wireless data ranging from fully integrated terminal/modem/radio units to multibox combinations of PCs, external modems, cellular transceivers, and portable faxes. A (too) simple representation of some of the terrestrial variations is illustrated in .igure 16-1. This convoluted collection of hardware alternatives is extraordinarily volatile.
One area in which artificial neural networks (ANNs) may strengthen NLP systems is in the identification of words under noisy conditions. In order to achieve this benefit when spelling errors or spelling variants are present, variable-length strings of symbols must be converted to ANN input/output form--fixed-length arrays of numbers. A common view in the neural network community has been that different forms of input/output representations have negligible effect on ANN performance.