Representative types

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  • Modifying Data Using a Strongly Typed DataSet In Chapter 10, you saw how to create and use a strongly typed DataSet class named MyDataSet. You can use objects of this class to represent the Customers table and rows from that table

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  • This is the second of two papers in which we prove the Tits alternative for Out(Fn ). Contents 1. Introduction and outline 2. Fn -trees 2.1. Real trees 2.2. Real Fn -trees 2.3. Very small trees 2.4. Spaces of real Fn -trees 2.5. Bounded cancellation constants 2.6. Real graphs 2.7. Models and normal forms for simplicial Fn -trees 2.8. Free factor systems 3. Unipotent polynomially growing outer automorphisms 3.1. Unipotent linear maps 3.2. Topological representatives 3.3. Relative train tracks and automorphisms of polynomial growth 3.4. Unipotent representatives and UPG automorphisms ...

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  • This report is based on research conducted by the Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Rockville, MD (Contract No. 290-02-0018). The findings and conclusions in this document are those of the author(s), who are responsible for its content, and do not necessarily represent the views of AHRQ. No statement in this report should be construed as an official position of AHRQ or of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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  • This paper descrlbes how meanings are represented in a semantic grammar for a fragment of English in the logic programming language Prolog. The conventions of Definite Clause Grammars are used. Previous work on DCGs with a semantic component has used essentially first-order formulas for representing meanings. The system described here uses formulas of the typed ~-calculus.

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  • This paper presents an original approach to semi-supervised learning of personal name ethnicity from typed graphs of morphophonemic features and first/last-name co-occurrence statistics. We frame this as a general solution to an inference problem over typed graphs where the edges represent labeled relations between features that are parameterized by the edge types. We propose a framework for parameter estimation on different constructions of typed graphs for this problem using a gradient-free optimization method based on grid search.

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  • Default inheritance is a useful tool for encoding linguistic generalisations that have exceptions. In this paper we show how the use of an order independent typed default unification operation can provide non-redundant highly structured and concise representation to specify a network of lexical types, that encodes linguistic information about verbal subcategorisation.

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  • The question we have addressed here is to define the size and composition of the corpus we would need in order to get necessary and sufficient information for Machine Learning techniques to induce that type of information. Representativeness of a corpus is a topic largely dealt with, especially in corpus linguistics. One of the standard references is Biber (1993) where the author offers guidelines for corpus design to characterize a language.

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  • ON REPRESENTING GOVERNED PREPOSITIONS AND HANDLING "INCORRECT" AND NOVEL PREPOSITIONS Hatte R. Blejer, Sharon Flank, and A n d r e w K c h l e r SRA Corporation 2000 15th St. N o r t h Arlington, VA 22201, USA ABSTRACT NLP systems, in order to be robust, must h a n d l e novel a n d ill-formed input. One c o m m o n type of error involves the use of n o n - s t a n d a r d prepositions to m a r k arguments. In this paper, we...

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  • In this chapter, we present in a nutshell the fundamental aspects of engineering electromagnetics from the view of looking back in a reflective fashion at what has already been learned in undergraduate electromagnetics courses as a novice. The first question that electromagnetics.

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  • As the editor of this book, I would like to give you some tips on how to make the best use of the information you will find here. Because you are considering a career change, you already understand the concept of managing your career for maximum enjoyment and self-fulfillment. The purpose of this book is to provide expert tools and advice so that you can manage your career. Inside these pages you will find resumes and cover letters that will help you find not just a job but the type of work you want to do....

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  • Cognitive maps have emerged as an important tool in modeling and decision making. In a nutshell they are signed di-graphs that capture the cause/effect relationships that subject matter experts believe exist in a problem space under consideration. Each node in the map represents some variable concept.

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  • A representative sample survey of 1273 persons aged 60 and older living in private households was conducted in an area covering over half of Cambodia's population which includes Phnom Penh and the five most populated provinces (Kampong Cham, Kandal, Prey Veng, Battambang, and Takeo). 1 The location of the provinces covered are shown in Figure 1. Sampling procedures are described in detail in Appendix A. Samples were drawn separately for Phnom Penh and the other five provinces taken collectively using somewhat different procedures for the two domains.

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  • TDictionary represents a generic collection of key-value pairs. This class provides a mapping from a collection of keys to a collection of values. When you create a TDictionary object, you can specify various combinations of initial capacity, equality operation, and initial content. You can add a key that is associated with a corresponding value with the Add or AddOrSetValue methods. You can remove entries with Remove or Clear, which removes all key-value pairs. Adding or removing a key-value pair and looking up a key are efficient, close to O(1), because keys are hashed.

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  • Asmentioned in the introduction, the information associatedwith an event is represented by a data structure called a notification.We refer to the datamodel or encoding schema of notifications as the event notification model or simply event model. Most existing event notification services adopt a simple record- like structure for notifications, while some more recent frameworks define an object-oriented model (e.g., the Java™ Distributed Event Specification [Sun Microsystems 1998] and the CORBA Notification Service [Object Management Group 1998b]).

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  • Historically, a course on data structures has been a mainstay of most computer science departments. Over the last 18 years, however, the focus of this course has broadened considerably. The topic of data structures has now been subsumed under the broader topic of abstract data types (ADTs)—the study of classes of objects whose logical behavior is defined by a set of values and a set of operations.

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  • In the acyclic peer-to-peer architecture, servers communicate with each other symmetrically as peers, adopting a protocol that allows a bidirectional flow of subscriptions, advertisements, and notifications. Hence we use an undirected graph to represent the topology of this architecture. (As always, the external clients of the service use the standard client/server protocol described in Sec- tion 3.) The configuration of the connections among servers in this architecture is restricted so that the topology forms an acyclic undirected graph.

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  • BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS IN THE CLASS OF CAUCHY-TYPE INTEGRALS WITH DENSITY IN L p(·) (Γ) V. KOKILASHVILI, V. PAATASHVILI, AND S. SAMKO Received 9 July 2004 We study the Riemann boundary value problem Φ+ (t) = G(t)Φ− (t) + g(t), for analytic functions in the class of analytic functions represented by the Cauchy-type integrals with density in the spaces L p(·) (Γ) with variable exponent. We consider both the case when the coefficient G is piecewise continuous and the case when it may be of a more general nature, admitting its oscillation.

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  • In a world of 6 billion inhabitants, international migration seems insignificant as it comes to represent about three per cent of the world. Most migration, in fact is internal—rural to rural, rural to urban—and international migration in many cases follows a sequence of stages, from rural to urban, then to the international sphere. However, international migration takes on greater relevance because of the significant volume of remittances worldwide. To many, remittances have become a stable source of finances (Ratha, 2003, Sørensen, 2002).

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  • Paper consumption can represent significant costs associated with the communications and marketing activities of a planned event. It is often considered a necessary cost of doing business. Yet, when looking at a standard piece of paper, many of us do not consider the true cost of producing it. Conventional paper uses chemicals that produce, along with the paper itself, harsh toxic substances and the living trees used to make the paper provide priceless ecological services.

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  • Our first set of results does not allow the effect of an MBA to vary across the three types of programs or with program quality. Table 5 presents the results for men. The OLS results without ability controls yield an estimate of a 9.4% return for obtaining an MBA. The return falls to 6.3% when GMAT scores and undergraduate grades are included in the regression. There is a positive and significant return to math ability but no return to verbal ability. 29 For males, one standard deviation increase in math ability, 8.66 points, yields an 8% increase in wages. ...

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