This book offers an overview of the complex interplay between hormonal activation and individual and environmental influences on health and disease in women. The book provides useful information and background material important for treating problems related to the reproductive cycle, eating disorders, drug treatment of women, and clinical and treatment issues in coronary artery disease and breast cancer. This is a medically-oriented book written firstly for the practicing
Chapter 19 introduce to Viruses. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Explain how capsids and envelopes are formed, distinguish between the lytic and lysogenic reproductive cycles, explain why viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, describe the reproductive cycle of an HIV retrovirus, describe three processes that lead to the emergence of new diseases, describe viroids and prions.
From ancient times until the modern technological age, healthcare was mostly for, about and by women. The
wonder of the reproductive cycle, the miracle of birth and the powerless mystery of death were the domains of
women who watched over them. Before the dawn of patriarchy, women were the natural healers and guardians
of the mysteries and stories of the people. Women looked to the earth from where life began and where the
food for sustaining life was grown for help in healing the ill.
Within developing countries, health sector reform, often including decen-
tralized priority setting, increases the information and advocacy burden for
inclusion of SRH concerns. Central functions (like operating logistic systems
and service quality control) require high-level commitment and a supportive
policy and regulatory framework.
The international discussion on SRH emphasizes an outcome-oriented
public health approach but people react to multiple dimensions. Strong pas-
sions and intensive debates continue on a range of issues: abortion, adolescent
SRH and even family planning.
After studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: List the four stages of interphase, and describe the major events that occur during each stage in preparation for cell division; describe the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis; list the checkpoints that regulate the progression of cells through the cell cycle;...
Chapter 27 - The reproductive system (part c), the main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Establishing the ovarian cycle, establishing the ovarian cycle, hormonal interactions during a 28-day ovarian cycle, uterine (menstrual) cycle, effects of estrogens,...
(BQ) Part 2 book "Endocrine and reproductive physiology" presents the following contents: The adrenal gland, life cycle of the male and female reproductive systems, the female reproductive system, the female reproductive system, fertilization, pregnancy, and lactation
All living organisms require food for survival, growth, and reproduction.
Most broadly, the term food can be taken to include any kind of nutrient
needed by animals, plants, and simpler forms of life, on down to
bacteria. This would include, for example, the inorganic substances that
plants draw from air and water. The processes that circulate these basic
nutrients in the environment are called nutrient cycles, and the processes
by which organisms make use of nutrients are collectively known as
Blood clam (Scapharca subcrenata) was collected monthly from Pusan, Korea to investigate the reproductive cycle and the occurrence of mud worm (Polydora sp.). Histological observation showed that S. subcrenata started their gametogensesis as early as March when environmental temperature increased. Most of clams underwent ripe stage in June and some of observed samples already spawned in July.
Writing a book like this requires a number of key ingredients. One is the
body of sophisticated and exciting research on reproductive biology and
health from which I have drawn extensively. A quick glance at the list of
references cited provides a good compilation of the work that I believe has
the most to offer as we try to understand challenges to women’s health that
we are facing and will continue to face as global resources constrict,
population expands, and more and more people strive for the lifestyles of
the ‘‘health-rich’’ nations.
Short-term benefits have been noted in studies comparing immediate start of COC with
conventional start.14 In a randomised trial, those who were quick started were more likely to
start their second pack of pills (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0–2.1). However at 3 and 6 months,
continuation rates were comparable between the two groups.16 This study involved mainly
socially deprived young Latino women and therefore these findings may not translate to
other groups of women.
There is a theoretical concern that women with a short menstrual cycle may ovulate very early
in their cycle, putting them at risk of pregnancy if starting contraception as late as Day 5 or
Day 7 (LNG-IUS). There is no strong evidence to support or refute the risk but some sources of
patient information (e.g. FPA) advise additional contraception for women in this situation if
they have a cycle shorter than 23 days.
Faculty guidance on postnatal sexual and reproductive health includes recommendations on
starting contraceptive methods after childbirth.
Although not specifically referred to as quick starting, previous Faculty guidance has advised
that contraceptive methods can be started at any point in the menstrual cycle if a
practitioner is reasonably certain that the woman is not currently pregnant (Box 1)8 or at risk
of pregnancy. As sperm may be viable in the female reproductive tract for up to 7 days,
health professionals should consider if a woman is at risk of becoming pregnant as a result of
unprotected sexual intercourse (UPSI) within the last 7 days.
Women usually produce one mature egg per menstrual cycle. Because IVF is so expensive,
current clinical practice is to give women hormonal drugs to stimulate multiple eggs in one
cycle, to increase their chances of pregnancy. For this process, women inject three different
hormones over the course of four to six weeks to “shut down” their ovaries, “hyperstimulate”
them, and to control the timing that the mature eggs will be released.
In addition to ovulation, another critical function occurs during the
menstrual cycle. The woman’s body must be prepared in case fertilization
occurs. Everything must be ready to nurture the developing embryo. Dur-
ing the ﬁrst two weeks of the cycle, estrogen causes the lining of the uterus
to thicken. There is also an increase in the amount of blood that ﬂows to
During the second half of the cycle, after ovulation has occurred, the
follicle (now without the egg cell) develops into a yellow-colored body,
the corpus luteum.
The growing tissue then begins
to release more hormones to keep everything in the right condition. How-
ever, if fertilization does not occur, the continued preparations in the
uterus are unnecessary. The body realizes this near the end of the four-
week period of the menstrual cycle. At this time, the level of LH decreases,
the corpus luteum breaks down, and the level of progesterone decreases.
Without this hormone, the uterine lining no longer remains intact.
Instead, the lining breaks down.
Only human females and some other higher primates have a regular
monthly menstrual cycle. Humans, however, are able to mate at any time.
Females of almost all other mammal species will mate only at speciﬁc
times during a year. These times are known as estrus or “heat.” It is only
during estrus that egg cells are released for fertilization. Estrus occurs in
wolves and deer once a year, in dogs usually twice a year, in cows and
horses once a month, and in rats and mice every few days.
Ovulation, mating, and fertilization occur on a speciﬁc timetable.
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) was given an international consensus def-
inition at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)
in 1994. At its core is the promotion of healthy, voluntary and safe sexual and
reproductive choices for individuals and couples, including decisions on family
size and timing of marriage, that are fundamental to human well-being. Sexual-
ity and reproduction are vital aspects of personal identity and key to creating
fulfilling personal and social relationships within diverse cultural contexts.
The HIV/AIDS pandemic constitutes a major threat to development in
affected countries. The virus is spreading through different populations at
varying rates, and prevalence rates among adults range from a fraction of a
percent to well over 30 percent. In sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Carib-
bean, the epidemic is clearly established in the general population and is largely
spread through heterosexual contact. Whatever the main means of transmis-
sion, however, it is almost always the poor and the marginalized that are at
greatest risk of exposure.
The appropriate time to start contraception depends on the contraceptive method and may
also depend on medical and social factors. Traditionally, initiation of hormonal and
intrauterine methods of contraception has been delayed until the onset of the next menstrual
period in order to avoid inadvertent use during pregnancy. Starting early in the cycle also
avoids the need for additional contraception. The manufacturers’ Summaries of Product
Characteristics (SPCs) vary in their advice on contraceptive start dates and the need for