Xem 1-20 trên 42 kết quả Reproductive hormones
  • This book offers an overview of the complex interplay between hormonal activation and individual and environmental influences on health and disease in women. The book provides useful information and background material important for treating problems related to the reproductive cycle, eating disorders, drug treatment of women, and clinical and treatment issues in coronary artery disease and breast cancer. This is a medically-oriented book written firstly for the practicing

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  • EngenderHealth, a non-profit organisation that works in reproductive health, has devised a "client-orientated, provider-efficient" (COPE) approach to improve quality of care and motivate staff. COPE offers guidance for providers to assess their services, interview patients, and examine the time that they spend at clinics. This gives staff a better understanding of patients' perspectives, and enables them to develop a plan of action to improve quality. In some clinics, COPE has resulted in staff staggering their lunch breaks to reduce patients' waiting time.

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  • The following will be discussed in this chapter: Hormonal regulation of male reproductive function, hpg axis, mechanism and effects of testosterone activity, male secondary sex characteristics, female reproductive anatomy,...

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  • From clinical studies sepsis can be seen as a continuum of severity that begins with an infection, followed in some cases by sepsis, severe sepsis – with organ dysfunction – and septic shock. There has been a substantial increase in the incidence of sepsis during the last decades, and it appears to be rising over time, with an increasing number of deaths occurring despite a decline in overall in-hospital mortality (Bone, 1992).

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  • The peptide hormones of the anterior pituitary are essential for the regulation of growth and development, reproduction, responses to stress, and intermediary metabolism. Their synthesis and secretion are controlled by hypothalamic hormones and by hormones from the peripheral endocrine organs. A large number of disease states as well as a diverse group of drugs also affect their secretion.

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  • Receptors for the key female reproductive hormones, estrogens, are found throughout the entire brain including prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, and brain stem. The neurotransmitter systems involved in depression (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, cetylcholine, GABA, glutamate) are regulated by the action of estrogen. Research suggests that women may have increased susceptibility to depression and mood disorders during two key lifecycle transitions: pregnancy and the postpartum period, and perimenopause.

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  • Inadvertent fetal exposure to contraceptive hormones is common, with a USA study estimating that approximately 70 000 fetuses are exposed to oral contraceptives annually.23 Most of the data on fetal outcomes relate to COC. The CEU found no studies that specifically assessed exposure through quick starting contraception. Studies are often limited by their observational nature, potential confounding factors and small sample size. Reassuringly there have been no consistent findings of specific fetal abnormalities.

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  • AI refers to several different procedures, all of which involve inserting sperm into a woman’s body, the differences referring to whether the sperm is placed in her vagina, uterus, cervix or fallopian tubes. AI can also be combined with hormonal drugs to stimulate production of multiple eggs to increase likelihood that one of them will be fertilized. AI can be done at home with a syringe or in a medical setting.

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  • For the purposes of excluding pregnancy, the CEU would advise that hormonal, intrauterine and barrier methods can be considered reliable providing they have been used consistently and correctly on every incidence of intercourse. This should be assessed on an individual basis. Quick starting may also mean starting a method immediately after the administration of emergency contraception (EC). In this situation there is a possibility of EC failure and pregnancy, therefore such practice would always be outside the licence of hormonal contraceptives.

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  • When starting hormonal contraception after POEC (Levonelle 1500® or Levonelle One Step®) additional contraception should be advised until contraceptive efficacy is established (see Summary on page iv). There are no data on quick starting hormonal contraception after use of the emergency contraceptive, ulipristal acetate (UPA) (ellaOne®). As UPA is a progesterone receptor modulator that blocks the action of progesterone, it may affect the contraceptive efficacy of hormonal methods.35,36 However, no interaction studies have been carried out to date.

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  • For those using ART because of medical infertility, there are a variety of factors that can contribute to this diagnosis. According to the Collaborative on Health and the Environment, infertility can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, combinations of the two, or endocrine or immune system disorders. It can be caused in the womb, in which genetic instructions are impacted by factors such as a mutation, a chemical insult, or an imbalance in hormones and the impact is not seen until the individual tries to procreate; or it can be caused in adulthood.

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  • Women usually produce one mature egg per menstrual cycle. Because IVF is so expensive, current clinical practice is to give women hormonal drugs to stimulate multiple eggs in one cycle, to increase their chances of pregnancy. For this process, women inject three different hormones over the course of four to six weeks to “shut down” their ovaries, “hyperstimulate” them, and to control the timing that the mature eggs will be released.

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  • In addition to ovulation, another critical function occurs during the menstrual cycle. The woman’s body must be prepared in case fertilization occurs. Everything must be ready to nurture the developing embryo. Dur- ing the first two weeks of the cycle, estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to thicken. There is also an increase in the amount of blood that flows to this area. During the second half of the cycle, after ovulation has occurred, the follicle (now without the egg cell) develops into a yellow-colored body, the corpus luteum.

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  • The growing tissue then begins to release more hormones to keep everything in the right condition. How- ever, if fertilization does not occur, the continued preparations in the uterus are unnecessary. The body realizes this near the end of the four- week period of the menstrual cycle. At this time, the level of LH decreases, the corpus luteum breaks down, and the level of progesterone decreases. Without this hormone, the uterine lining no longer remains intact. Instead, the lining breaks down.

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  • The appropriate time to start contraception depends on the contraceptive method and may also depend on medical and social factors. Traditionally, initiation of hormonal and intrauterine methods of contraception has been delayed until the onset of the next menstrual period in order to avoid inadvertent use during pregnancy. Starting early in the cycle also avoids the need for additional contraception. The manufacturers’ Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) vary in their advice on contraceptive start dates and the need for additional contraception.

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  • A Cochrane review has found limited evidence that immediate (‘quick’) start of hormonal contraception reduces unintended pregnancies or improves continuation rates.15 None of the studies included in the review were powered to detect contraceptive efficacy. Whilst there is currently a paucity of evidence demonstrating effectiveness, there are data to suggest women find quick starting acceptable. It is possible that effectiveness may vary depending on method type.

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  • On the federal level, three agencies regulate ART. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collects and publishes data on ART procedures. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) controls approval and use of drugs, biological products, and medical devices and has jurisdiction over screening and testing of reproductive tissues, such as donor eggs and sperm. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is responsible for implementation of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act to ensure the quality of laboratory testing....

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  • In most women, the menstrual cycle continues for at least 40 years from puberty. Between the ages of 45 and 55, the levels of hormones change; the menstrual cycle becomes less regular and eventually stops. This stage, called menopause, marks the point at which a female is no longer capable of reproducing. Menopause is a normal occurrence in all women; however, the effects of menopause vary widely from one woman to another. In men, by contrast, sperm production continues throughout life, although the number of healthy sperm likely declines with age....

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  • Any attempt to improve the efficiency of AI has to be based on an understanding of the most important causes for failure under each specific production system. The traditional methods used for this rely on accurate recording and analysis of reproductive events such as oestrus, services, pregnancies and calvings. However, records are rarely kept by smallholders and, even when available, do not allow an assessment of the importance of factors such as efficiency and precision of oestrus detection by the farmers or incorrect timing of insemination.

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  • The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) plays an important role in the regulation of hemolymph glucose levels, but it is also involved in other functions such as growth, molting and reproduction. In the present study we describe the first CHH family gene isolated from the Atlantic Ocean shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti.

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