These donors—and the parliaments that approve
their budgets—grew impatient with “traditional”
approaches to aid that produced limited results or
benefited the rich more than the poor. They now
favor results-oriented programs that seek to address
the underlying structural problems of poverty or
broad international development goals, rather than
provide specific health services. Current health fund-
ing is more likely to be tied to broader grants or the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which
do not include family planning and reproductive
Iam extremely pleased to introduce Women of the World: Laws
and Policies Affecting Their Reproductive Lives,East Central Europe.
This book is a unique review of laws and policies relating to
reproductive health and rights in East Central Europe. The
dramatic political and economic transitions in this region have
resulted in numerous laws and policies that shape women’s
health and reproductive lives.
I have spent most of my professional career since the 1980s working on
reproductive and sexual health programs, but I first developed a passion
for these issues while working on a project in Chile from 1972 to 1973 at
the time of Salvador Allende’s government. A multinational group of women
friends got together to adapt Our Bodies Ourselves1 for a Chilean audience,
which was to appear in the government’s women’s magazine, Paloma.
This book has been in the making since 2002, when the Ford
Foundation generously gave a grant to the International Center for
Research on Women (ICRW) for a project to explore the linkages
between trade liberalization, women’s employment, and reproductive
health and rights at the macro- and micro-levels.
Reproductive rights advocates have been put in a particularly challenging position because
public debate about ART has been dominated by abortion politics. The Religious Right has
succeeded in centralizing the discussion on the moral status of the embryo, obscuring a broader
set of issues. Put in a defensive position, the reproductive rights movement has, until recently,
not had the opportunity to grapple internally with the complexities of ART use, and has tended to
fall back on traditional models of individual autonomy and choice.
With increasing numbers of U.S.
Imagine a world in which the laws and policies of every
country allowed women to fully enjoy their reproductive
rights. While this is still a distant goal, a confluence of
factors has enabled women’s health and rights advocates
to bring it into focus. The 1994 International Conference
on Population and Development (ICPD) and the 1995
Fourth World Conference on Women (FWCW) were
groundbreaking for so many reasons, among them that
governments agreed that everyone has reproductive
rights, and that they are an inalienable part of established
international human rights.
As the international community moves toward a more robust recognition of both the
human rights of disabled persons and the reproductive rights of women, the intersection
comprising the right of disabled women to reproductive freedom must be given full atten-
tion. This briefing paper proposes a human rights framework for considering the repro-
ductive rights of women with disabilities, taking into consideration international human
rights laws and instruments and global consensus documents.
Women with mental disabilities should be involved in decision-making about their
reproductive rights to the fullest extent allowed by their capacities. To the degree
that a woman can give her informed consent, she is entitled to do so. At the same
time, women with mental disabilities may possess particular vulnerabilities that
entitle them to heightened protection from sexual abuse and other forms of exploi-
Women’s education and reproductive health have come to be seen in recent years as the
most effective channels for influencing fertility. In Sections 4-5 I provide an outline of the
theoretical and empirical reasons why they are so seen. It is an interesting analytical feature of
education and reproductive health that they can be studiedwithin a frameworkwhere households
make decisions in isolation of other households.
Latinas stand at a unique historical juncture in the reproductive justice movement. A new wave of Latinas are coming of
age, changing the political and social landscape of this country. Without question, Latina civic and political inﬂuence will
grow exponentially over the next decade, making their involvement and leadership in the reproductive rights movement a
prerequisite for success.
The need for reproductive justice for Latinas has never been greater.
Reproductive rights are internationally recognized as critical both for advancing women’s human rights
and for promoting development. In recent years, governments from all over the world have acknowledged
and pledged to advance reproductive rights to an unprecedented degree.
This report was coordinated jointly by Gaby Oré Aguilar,
International Program Staff Attorney for Latin America and
the Caribbean of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy,
and Roxana Vásquez Sótelo,General Coordinator of DEMUS
and Regional Coordinator for this report.
Within a social justice model, the G&J Program uses a reproductive justice framework, as
conceptualized by SisterSong and Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice.
justice extends beyond health services and information (reproductive health model) and
fundamental liberties (reproductive rights model), to the economic, social, environmental, and
political conditions that affect the health and lives of women and their families and communities.
During the last decades, global organizations and women’s rights advocates have called on
governments to recognise the multiple determinants of women’s health, and there has been a
growing consensus about the need to integrate and widen health services to respond to a
broad variety of problems affecting them.
Globalization exerts positive and negative impacts on health and has
been linked to reduced government expenditures on health, education,
and social programs, and restructured workplace and home life. Globalization
is altering gender roles and relationships and influencing health
determinants. Asymmetric rights and responsibilities, labor market segregation,
consumption patterns, and discrimination are influenced differently
by globalization and affect men and women’s health in distinct ways.
Integrating reproductive health, family planning and STI/HIV prevention and treatment services is
critical for achieving universal access. Integration requires that health care workers can provide
an appropriate comprehensive package of services under one roof, and refer patients to other
services if required. Linking STI/HIV with SRH services improves access to HIV/STI services for
women who might otherwise not visit them because of issues of stigma .
In September 2006, as a result of advocacy by international and national non-governmental
organisations (NGOs), the United Nations (UN) General Assembly finally adopted the target of
universal access to reproductive health. This health key issues guide explores issues relating to
universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services using a rights-based
approach. The guide examines factors that inhibit access to and use of SRH services, and
discusses methods for removing barriers to care and improving access.
The government of Mexico City, Mexico
believes that access to health care is a
human right, and should be universal and
free to those who cannot afford to pay.
In Mexico City the mayor has made health
care accessible to all, and has garnered
the broad support of the City’s leaders
and citizens for this unique effort
the City’s popular mayor, Andres Manuel
López Obrador, came to power, he faced
two significant challenges to keeping his
campaign promise of free health care to
poorer families. First, the public health
system was fragmented.
This toolkit is the result of teamwork between sexual and
reproductive health practitioners working with young
people in Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe and Uganda.
The ﬁrst version of the toolkit was developed with
International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Planned Parenthood
Association of Zambia, Young, Happy, Healthy and
Safe, the Ministries of Health and Education, and peer
educators and young people in rural Eastern Province,
Zambia. The toolkit was tested by peer educators and
revised on the basis of their experience and the lessons
learned in monitoring.